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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (46):
1

Which curve best describes survivorship in elephants?

Slow curve down, relative plateau in beginning.

2

The observational study of crows and helks presented in class showed that

Crows conform to the prediction of optimal foraging theory

3

Using the mark/recapture method, if you mark 100 animals and release tehm to the wild, and later find 5 marked animals in a new sample of 100 captured, what is the estimated total population size?

2000

4

A species whose life history emphasized rapid, high reproduction with low parental investment in any single offspring is an example of

r-selection

5

Which is an example of mutualism?

Plants and mycorrhizal fungi

6

A small population of species has the same intrinsic rate if increase (r) as a large population. If everything else is equal,

The large population will add more individuals per unit time.

7

What will happen to GFR (glomerular filtration rate) if you constrict the afferent arteriole with no change in the diameter to the efferent arteriole?

GFR will increase

8

What is the current level of CO2 in the atmosphere compared to what it was over the past 400,000 years?

Higher.

9

In animals, the kind of behavior that is triggered by a sign stimulus and once because always goes to completion is

A fixed action pattern

10

Urea is ____.

The primary nitrogenous waste product of humans

11

How to sea birds gain pure water by drinking salt water?

They are able to excrete a concentrated salt solution from their nasal salt glands

12

The soil seed bank contributes to revegetation in

Secondary succession

13

Even in the per capita birth rate is at the level that should exactly replace every mating couple, a population can continue to rapidly increase if it has

A bottom-heavy age structure

14

When a plant stem experiences light coming from just one side

Auxin accumulates on the dark side and causes greater cell expansion on the light side (photo-tropism)

15

After they were protected by a hunting ban, the South African population of elephants underwent

Exponential growth

16

It is thought that altruistic behaviors may have evolved because they

Increase inclusive fitness of individuals by benefiting close relatives

17

The fall migration by monarch butterflies is

An innate behavior

18

Why are many of the earth's major deserts located about 30 degrees from the equator?

Large scale air movement absorbs moisture from these areas and transports it toward the equator.

19

A plant cell is expanding longitudinally (up), what aspect of its cell wall structure prevents the cell from expanding transversely?

Its cellulose microfibrils are oriented transversely.

20

Which interactions between species might you see in a uniform dispersion pattern?

A territorial species

21

Which interactions between species are +/-?

Predation, herbivory and parasitism

22

In which nephron segment is most of the filtrate reabsorbed?

Proximal convoluted tubule

23

In a popualtion undergoing logistical growth, the rate of population increase

Slows as the population approaches K.

24

What factors are most responsible for the large-scale vegetation zones called biomes?

Temperature and rainfall.

25

Evidence from ice cores shows that over the past 400,000 years the average global temperature

Has undergone repeated cycles of rising and falling.

26

The toal water potential of pure water is 0Mpa, Dissolving solutes in the water will

Lower the water potential by lowering the solute potential

27

A human who has no access to fresh water but is forced to drink seawater instead will ____.

Excrete more water molecules than taken in because of the high amount of salt ingestion

28

To maintain homeostasis, freshwater fish must ____.

Excrete large quantities of a dilute urine.

29

By about how much has the human population increased since the 1950s?

More than 100%

30

Materials are returned to the blood from the glomerular filtrate by which of the following processes?

Reabsorption

31

Under what conditions might you observe character displacement?

When two formerly allopatric species with similar niches become sympatric.

32

Which of the following is the filtering unit of the mammalian kidney?

Glomerulus

33

The water potential gradient between a plant root and the soil

Is reduced in dry soils

34

What might a secondary consumer eat?

An herbivore.

35

In a species with Type III survivorship curve mortality is ____.

High in early life, the falls.

36

Barnacle Species I is experimentally removed from a habitat. This results in Barnacle 2 expanding its range. Before the removal, Species 2 was _____.

Occupying its realized niche.

37

The first macroscopic colonizers in primary succession are often _____ and _____.

Lichens and byrophytes.

38

Laboratory populations of small organisms grown in flasks exhibit ______.

A good fit to the logistical growth curve, with a smooth approach to K.

39

How does a keystone species affect its community?

A keystone species in not numerically abundant, but through predation or other effects increases species diversity in the community.

40

The rate of human population increase has ______ somewhat in recent decades.

Slowed.

41

Theory predicts that species diversity will be highest in communities that experience _______.

Intermediate levels of disturbance.

42

What is an example of top-down control of trophic levels with in a community?

Removing a secondary consumer to increase herbivore biomass.

43

What is a density-independent factor that could regulate population size?

A prolonged drought.

44

Species that have more than one reproductive episode ruing a life time are called

Iteroparous.

45

Canadian snowshoe hares and lynx both underwent fairly regular population cycles of boom and bust over most of a century. Why?

Lynx prey on hares, so an increase in hares leads to an increase in lynx, which reduces the hares, which reduces the lynx and so on.

46

Historically, the lowest percentage of the state of Massachusetts that was forested was

20% in about 1840.