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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (204)
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1

complete or partial absences of a structure caused by environmental or genetic factors

malformation

2

due to mechanical forces that mold a previously normal part of the fetus over a prolonged period
-often MSK and reversible

deformations

3

destructive processes which result in morphological alterations of already formed structures

disruption
ex. limb defects caused by amniotic bands

4

groups of anomalies occuring together which have a common cause*

syndromes

5

groups of anomalies that often occur together more often than chance alone would allow but whose cause has not yet been determined

associations
ex. CHARGE association

6

agents, generally chemical, radioactive or infectious which can produce birth defects. These are especially destructive when exposure occurs during the period of organogenesis

teratogens

7

____ the most common cause of low birth weight babies in the developing world

malnutrition

8

macrosomia

excessive birth weight

9

insulin acts as a powerful growth hormone in the fetus, causing

macrosomia

10

excessive insulin results in risk of ___

hyperglycemia in the newborn period

11

Describe insulin and glucose and how it relates to the fetus

insulin does not cross the placenta but glucose does. The fetus secretes increased level of insulin to regulate hyperglycemia

12

glucose is more teratogenic to the fetus when

1st trimester

13

hyperthyroidism in mom (ie. Grave's disease) affects the baby how?

-thyroid hormone can cross the placenta slowly
-can cause growth retardation or prematurity in newborns

14

How does hypothyroidism affect baby

can cause decreased IQ or small stature

15

Pre-eclamplsia

HTN that generally begins in 3rd trimester and is associated with edema (maternal) and proteinuria

16

Eclamplsia

HTN, edema, proteinuria and maternal seizures

17

HELLP

severe form of eclampsia with associated Hemolysis, Elevated Liver, Low Platelets

18

How does HTN in mom affect baby?

related to insufficient blood supply to placenta bc of vasocontriction
-IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction)
-premature delivery

19

pregnancy risks in extreme younth

-pregnancy induced HTN
-prematurity

20

pregnancy risks with advanced maternal age

-Down syndrome (or other chromosomal non-disjunctions)
-increased fetal loss
-inadequate milk supply
-increased risk of pre-eclampsia and HTN

21

Taking Dilantin (phenytoin) during pregnancy is associated w/

fetal hydantoin syndrome- consisiting of cleft lip and palate as well as mental retardation

22

Taking Valproic acid during pregnancy is associated w/

neural tube defects (eg. spina bifida)

23

Taking Keppra during pregnancy

has limited study but shows no teratogenicity

24

taking Lamictal during pregnancy shows

0.9% (8.9/1000) incidence of cleft lip +/- palate

25

taking Lithium during pregancy is associated w/

risk of Ebstein abnormality (displacement of TV into RV)

26

taking Phenothiazines (older anti-psychotic med ex. Haldol and Thorazine) during pregancy is associated w/

no known teratogenic effects but had disagreeable side-effects for adult pt.

27

what antidepressants are ok to take during pregnancy?

1. Tricyclics (ex. amitriptyline and nortriptyline)
2. SSRI (ex. Celexa, Prozac, Zoloft)
3. Wellbutrin

**avoid Paxil- doubles risk of septal defects in fetus

28

Xrays during pregnancy are known to cause

microcephaly, spina bifida, celft palate, limb defects

29

most common cause of IUGR in developed countries an its mechanism

Tobacco!

-direct teratogen
-vasoconstriction

30

tobacco increases risk of (4)

spontaneous abortion, prematurity, perinatal mortality, and SIDS