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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (27)
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1

Linnaeus

Classifying organisms (taxonomy

2

Lyell

Uniformitarisms..same natural processes that affect the world today worked in the past. Allows earths history to be constructed

3

Lamarck

Theory of acquired charachterist said: individual living organisms were seen as transforming direct in response to their changing environment. Ex: giraffes

4

Darwin

Natural selection. Beneficial traits that are passed down onto the next generation. Studied on the Beagle

5

Ray

Definition of species. Groups of reproductively isolated organisms

6

Theory of evolution

•knowledge of distant cultures came from Herodotus and Marco Polo

7

Evolutionary theory

• process of change over time
•set of testable hypothesis that assert living organisms can chne over time and give rise to new organisms
•share a common ancestry

1) fixity of species/essentialism: nothing new can be created, it is already here
2) intelligent design: there is a supernatural force that created everything

8

The process of natural selection

1. Biological variation within species
2. Reproduction faster than increase in food supply
• later generations get the accumulation of variation
• pangenisis: parent gives trait
•principal of segregation: get a mix of two traits

9

Where are homins found

1) the great Rift Valley
2) South Africa

10

Integrated culture features (4)

1) base- environment and natural resources
2) infrastructure- substinance/economy
3) social structure- rules and relationships, social organization
4) superstructure- beliefs and morality, how we view ourselves (world view)

11

Benedict and Mead

Culture influences emotions, near never accounted for the biology of individuals which was controversial

12

Psychological anthropologists believe that...

Biology influences emotions. Looks at how we are wired

13

Anthros Adopt

A biological or interactions at perspective. Combines the effects of biology and culture to explain human behavior

14

Endogamy vs. Exogamy

Endogamy- marriage within a group
Exogomy- marriage outside of a group. Leads to social networks and alliances

15

Unilineal Evolution

• developmental stages of culture
• savagery, barbarism, civilization
• Edward taylor

16

Franz Boas

• father of American anthropology
• trained first generation of American anthropologists
• emphasized that culture is UNIQUE
• argues that culture can't fit into stages, they are all unique

17

Koko

Female guerrilla, ASL

18

Kanzi

Male monkey, voice directions

19

Lexigram

Visual diagram with symbols representing concepts

20

Novel sentences

Complex sentences never heard before (I love lamp)

21

Linguistic Communication

Mor than words, can be physical

22

Pidgin Languages

Derived from one another

23

Creole languages

Taught/learned

24

First use of fire

Homo Erectus in cold climate for cooking

25

Oldie an Tools

• first was unchanged
material
• oldest evidence = 2 cut marks
• moved on to "chipper stones" that took flakes out of tools
•showed early humans had intellectual capacity
•used by h. Habillius

26

Achulean Tools

• stone tools produced by flaking
• more complex, used for chopping and cutting
• more flakes
• used by h. Erectus
O

27

Mousterian Tools

•most complex
•used for wide variety