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1

THREE SOURCES OF LEGITIMACY:

A.TRADITION:…….positions of power become legitimate over time….they become traditional---example?......political parties

B.CHARISMA:…….importance of personality, popularity, and personal magnetism---examples??......Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle, Adolph Hitler……Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi……maybe Bill Clinton???

C.LEGALITY:……political activities are legitimate because they are legal, they are based on an accepted body of law(s)……examples??.....national, state, and local governing bodies exercising authority over people based on laws, regulations, and policies passed by legislatures….ultimate legal source of legitimacy???......US Consitution

2

POLITICS

affairs of the city who gets what, when, and how”……now add “the why”

3

POLITICAL POWER:

THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE THE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS AND YIELD DESIRABLE

4

GOVERNMENT

institutions and processes by which rules are made and enforced for all members of a society….and by that we mean ALL members of society!!!

5

DEMOCRACY

power of the people

form of government in which the policy decisions of the government are based on the freely given consent of the people and the people are guaranteed certain basic rights…..hmmmm…..what is this???.....”PEOPLE???”……which ones???.....

6

DIRECT DEMOCRACY:

direct participation for every voter in the decision making process. Most common versions of such participation: referendum, recall, and initiative.

7

REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY:

also referred to as republican government…..transferring decision making power to people whom they elect to represent them This requires scheduled elections that cannot be suspended or postponed, it requires certain freedoms that must be guaranteed

8

How would you describe the American Political System…..What are its main 5 elements??

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS A: FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

9

names of philosophers

  1. —CONFUCIUS…………551-479 BC
  2. —THUCYDIDES………460-395 BC
  3. —SOCRATES……………469-399 BC
  4. —ARISTOTLE………….384-322 BC
  5. —PLATO…………………….429-347 BC
  6. —MARCUS AURELIUS….121-180 AD
  7. —CICERO…………………………106-43 BC
  8. —THOMAS HOBBES…….1588-1679 AD
  9. —NICOLLO MACHIAVELLI…..1608-1653 AD
  10. —IMMANUEL KANT………………..1724-1804 AD
  11. —JOHN STUART MILL…………..1806-1873 AD
  12. —DAVID HUME………………………….1711-1776 AD
  13. —BARON DE MONTESQUIEU…..1689-1755 AD
  14. —JOHN LOCKE…………………….1632-1704 AD
  15. —ADAM SMITH……………………1723-1790 AD
  16. —JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU…1712-1778 AD
  17. —ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE…..1805-1859 AD
  18. —THOMAS JEFFERSON……………1743-1826 AD

10

CORE CONCEPTS AND QUESTIONS OF POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

  • —State of Nature
  • —Power and Legitimacy
  • —Social Contract
  • —Natural Law
  • —Equality
  • —Morality
  • —Majority Rule
  • —Minority Rights
  • —Legality
  • —Democratic Institutions
  • —Elections
  • —Freedoms and Obligations
  • —Education
  • —Ethics
  • —Virtue

11

BASES OF DEMOCRACY

1.Self Government…….based on the ability of humans to understand the “natural law”…..that provides for certain natural rights…..life/liberty/property

2.Social Contract…….an agreement among members of the society in which they accepted existing laws and penalties as binding.  A second contract created government……why???......a limited one…protect people’s rights….if not then it should be replaced…..

3.Majority Rule……people are able to make rational decisions…..the will of the majority governs…..no fear of arbitrary use of power…..de Tocqueville will criticize this later on…….

4.Minority rights……..a Jeffersonian/Madisonian/Tocquevillean…perspective….the minority Must be granted certain basic freedoms…the concept of Liberty at work…..Bill of Rights????

5.Limited Government……constitutionalism and guarantees of civil liberties……we will talk about it later……

6.Democratic Institutions…..federalism or not, three branches, checks and balances, separation of powers…..decentralization of power centers and authority…..

7.Free Elections……essential for a government that is based on the will of the people…..smooth transitions….frequency is important…..yet can everyone vote or have they traditionally??

8.An Organized Opposition……free to criticize the ruling party…..balance the power of the ruling authority…..hmmmm…

9.Free Expression of Ideas…..this totally an Amendment issue….Bill of Rights…..

10.Equality……ask Jefferson about it…..now this one is a tough one….ask Lincoln…..equality could lead to loss of liberty….Communism….

11.Universal Education…one of the pillars of democracy…..hmmmm…people should be able to understand and participate…..

12

MAGNA CARTA (1215)

žking was bound by law to respect the rights of his nobles

13

The English Bill of Rights (1689)

žhmmm…it sounds familiar……..which guaranteed basic rights for royal subjects

14

Preconditions of american revolution 

  1. arrogance of power
  2. french indian work 
  3. fear 
  4. the taxts acts : sugar tea quarting/stamp vThe Coercive Acts
  5. boston masacar  fistfight that left 5 dead….wow
  6. Boston Tea Party 
  7. battle of concord and lexington where first shots fired
  8. common sense by thomas payne
  9.  

15

The First Continental Congress (1774): 

ž:  Delegates met in Philadelphia (Georgia excluded) in order to….raise arms?....rebel?...no, no, instead the purpose was to ”…deliberate and determine on wise and proper measures.”  However, radical minds(lol) such as Samuel Adams managed to force the delegates to adopt a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances”……so what was the British reaction???

  They paid no mind as they did not perceive the demands or the protests as a serious threat….hmmm

žWhat they did not see was the growing sense of Separate Identity that colonists like Patrick Henry were developing or had already developed.

žTalking did not help…..violence finally erupted….where??

16

Battle of Lexington and Concord:
The Boston Minutemen Incident (1775)

žBritish soldiers engage a small number of Colonists….the first shot is fired in Lexington

žNo more talking…no more trying to reason with the King

žThe beginning of the…..War of Independence???

žLet us meet again then……what now?

17

The Second Continental Congress (May 1775)

žstill independence was not in the agenda…the Loyalist phenomenon…however, the reality of the impending war and extensive frustration called for the creation of a central government….raise troops, money, ambassadors, etc

žCould Relations with the British still be Salvaged??.......what could really turn the tide in complete favor of the Revolution???....because some still thought it was possible to reason with England.

žWas it a philosopher?....was it a politician?....was it a scholar?.....who and what?

18

ž“Common Sense”…..by Thomas Paine

It was this best selling pamphlet that turned the tide in favor of the War for Independence…..written in a simple manner, ordinary language, and straight to the point…..by the summer of 1776 the idea of a break from England had become extremely popular

19

žDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Thomas Jefferson was asked to prepare a statement to be read to the public reflecting Richard Henry Lee’s (VA) call for independence.  The document was adopted on July 4, 1776 and it is widely known as the

20

The Articles of Confederation (AOC)

žfirst form of central government with very limited authority.  Based on the theory of State Sovereignty which held that the ultimate legal authority resided in each of the thirteen states (expressed in Article II)

21

successes and failures of the AOC

žSuccesses: The most important ones came in the arena of foreign affairs…..negotiation of commercial treaties with foreign nations and the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the war of Independence (officially) as England gave official nation recognition to its former enemy.

žFailures: The domestic arena, however, showed the real weaknesses of the AOC:…much dismay, economic depression and weakening of the national spirit due to the recent war with the British, commerce matters were unregulated as the states handled these issues poorly, increasing national debt due to the war, bad standing among foreign nations, creation of a debtor class within the states, angered creditors, and inflation

žOverall: The AOC failed to deal effectively with the domestic realities of the newly founded nation as the country was slipping into increasingly difficult economic and political times.

 

22

war started and ended 

žThe war started officially in 1776 and ended in 1781 with the surrender of the British (under the command of Cornwallis)  to General George Washington in Yorktown

23

Constitutional Convention-1787

žFollowing the Potomac River Agreement, delegates from 5 states called for another convention in order to….Revise the Articles of Confederation….they decided to hold it in Philadelphia in May of 1787.  The movement to change the AOC met Resistance by those who were afraid of a more centralized government and from those who were benefiting economically by the AOC……however difficult it did succeed and the Convention was held successfully in 1787 in Philadelphia (with delegates from nine out of thirteen states)……and James Madison kept the records of those closed sessions and that is how we know what transpired.

24

what triggered the constitutional convention 

žShay’s Rebellion…..siege of the Northampton courthouse, for nearly a year, in order to protest and stop judge backed farm foreclosures, eventually suppressed by state militia

25

Virginia Plan: 

26

New Jersey Plan: 

žPreserve the basic elements of the AOC, only one branch, Congress, and Unicameral (single house) with membership being equal to each state—one state one vote.  States kept ultimate legal authority and Congress would still have to ask the states before it could exercise any power over domestic matters.

27

Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise

where the lower house membership (House of Representatives) would be determined by population and upper house (Senate) membership would be equal and limited to two members per state regardless of geographical and population size.  So, still Bicameral but with both elements of representation---population based and equal.

28

: The 3/5ths Compromise

3.by which each slave would be counted as three fifths of a person in determining the size of representation in the House and imposing taxes   DISGUSTING!!!....yet provided for a temporary remedy

The 3/5th Compromise did not deal with slavery, rather it legitimized it and it revealed the inability of the delegates to take a moral stand against it.  This issue will lead the country into further dismay later on…

29

The Constitution was signed by 39 Delegates on 

Sept.17, 1787

30

Publius

žJames Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay supporters of the federalist papers