# exam 1 Flashcards

1
Q

Sound is a ______ ______

A

pressure wave

2
Q

what is the smallest amount of pressure required to move an eardrum

A

0.0002 dynes/cm2

3
Q

Velocity

A
• The speed of a sound wave

- Impacted by elasticity and density

4
Q

Wavelength

A

-Distance a sound wave travels in one cycle

5
Q

Pure Tones

A
• A single, isolated pitch
• “simple sound”
• very rare
• can be heard from tuning forks and audiometers
6
Q

Complex sound

A
• Two or more pitches combined

- so pretty much everything else

7
Q

Those who wear hearing aids sometimes report that on __________ days they are able to hear ___________.

A
• humid/muggy

- more clearly

8
Q

Longitudinal waves

A

-Movement in one direction

9
Q

Transverse waves

A

-Perpendicular movement

10
Q

________ and _______ are points of maximum displacement

A

Compression

Rarefaction

11
Q

The number of cycles per second is called:

A

Hertz

12
Q

Hertz

A

Pitch/frequency

13
Q

Subsonic:

A

-Less than the speed of sound

14
Q

Supersonic:

A

-Greater than the speed of sound

15
Q

Other types of sound

A
• Infrasonic

- ultrasonic

16
Q

Decibels:

A
• The amplitude of the cycles

- loudness

17
Q

Humans hear from __ Hz to _____ Hz but we only test to ___ Hz

A
• 20Hz
• 20,000 Hz
• 8K Hz
18
Q

What is the range of Hertz needed for human speech?

A

Between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz

19
Q

The period of sound:

A
• Hertz/frequency/pitch

- cycles per second (cps)

20
Q

Low frequency sounds = _____ period

A

longer

21
Q

High frequency sounds = _____ period

A

shorter

22
Q

The human ear is most sensitive from :

A

125 to 8000 Hz

needs the least dynes per cm2

23
Q

dB SPL=

A
• Sound Pressure Level
• used in measuring hearing aid performance/function
• 0.0002 dynes/cm2
24
Q

dB IL =

A
• Intensity Level
• used in electrical measurements/calibration of audiometers
• watts/cm2
25
Q

dB HL =

A
• Hearing Level
• used on hearing tests and audiograms
• each frequency calibrated to the human zero
26
Q

dB SL =

A
• Sensation Level
• refers to the level above threshold
• used for speech recognition testing
27
Q

dB nHL =

A
• Neural Hearing Level
• used in auditory brainstem testing
• most often referred to as eHL (estimated hearing level)
28
Q

zero on an audiogram is…

A

NOT the absence of sound, it is the typical lowest hearing level

29
Q

What is the logarithmic scale used for measuring hearing?

A

dBHL

30
Q

The human ear can detect ________

A

0-140 dBHL

once you reach above this level it results in instantaneous hearing loss

31
Q

True or false:

Some people can hear negative dB levels.

A

True

32
Q

If needed, what is the max level of dB that can be tested?

A

120 dBHL

33
Q

What are the measured aspects of an audiogram?

A
• frequency vs intensity
• air conduction vs bone conduction
• left ear vs right ear (symmetrical vs asymmetrical)
34
Q

An audiogram is an _____ graph in which frequency and pitch goes up by ______ on the ___ axis and loudness and intensity goes up by ____ on the ___ axis.

A
• inverse
• octaves
• x axis
• tens
• y axis
35
Q

Name the types of hearing loss

A
• Conductive
• Sensorineural
• Mixed
• unilateral/bilateral
• symmetrical/asymmetrical
• Vibrotactile
• Auditory Neuropathy
36
Q

Conductive hearing loss:

A
• outer or middle ear “conducts” sound to inner ear

- can be due to wax, infection, no outer ear, etc.

37
Q

Sensorineural hearing loss:

A
• dealing with the cochlea (sensory)

- dealing with the nerves (neural)

38
Q

Vibrotactile hearing loss:

A

-sound that you can physically feel because it is so loud and low

39
Q

Air conduction audiology symbols:

A
```0=right ear (right round) unmasked
ac=air conduction```
40
Q

Bone Conduction audiology symbols:

A

(open end points to the ear it represents)

a symbol with an arrow attached means NR (no response)

41
Q

A

-Using noise to occupy one ear while testing the other

42
Q

more symbols:

A
```s = sound field (speakers) both ears working together
R= aided right ear only
L= aided left ear only
CI= cochlear implant```
43
Q

Degrees of hearing loss as described on an audiogram:

A
• flat vs sloping
• cookie bite (high on the ends low in the middle)
• ski slope (very steep)
• reverse slope (very rare)
• high frequency (looks like a flipped letter L)
44
Q

Articulation index: most speech frequencies occur between ___ and __

A

1K and 4K

45
Q

Acoustics:

A

-The study of sound and perception

46
Q

Noise:

A

-Any unwanted/interfering sound

47
Q

Signal:

A

-The sound you want to listen to

48
Q

Reverberation:

A
• Echo

- the amount of time it takes a sound to decrease by 60 dB after the source has stopped, measured in seconds

49
Q

Signal to noise ratio S/N:

A

-Volume of the signal vs the volume of the noise

50
Q

General noise tends to carry a lot of ___ _______ which “mask” softer ____ ____ speech sounds.

A
• low frequencies

- high frequencies

51
Q

ANSI standards of noise:

A

_

52
Q

ASHA standards of noise:

A

_

53
Q

Sound level meter:

A
• has 3 scales for different purposes
• most common is the A scale
• measures how loud a room is
54
Q

Noise sources:

A

-internal vs external

55
Q

Give an example of an internal noise source:

A

-talking, moving, tapping, writing, music, lighting

56
Q

Give and example of an external noise source:

A

-traffic, wind, hallway, construction

57
Q

Inverse square law:

A

-signal decreases by 6dB for every doubling of distance

58
Q

ANSI standards of signal noise ratio:

A

+15 dB S/N for hard of hearing students

+6 to 12 dB S/N for hearing students

59
Q

Echo:

A

-created as sound that bounces off of hard surfaces and interact with the size and shape of a room

60
Q

Things to consider in a room:

A

-diameter, shape, features, internal and external sounds

61
Q

The human ear forms between ___ and ___ weeks of gestation.

A

3 and 37 weeks

62
Q

The human ear is functional at ___ weeks.

A

20 weeks

63
Q

True or false: the ear does not grow after birth

A

true

64
Q

The cochlea is the size of a ____

A

pea

65
Q

The human ear contains _____ ____ from all other body systems.

A

representative tissue

66
Q

Genetic info:
Our genes contain __ chromosomes (__ from each parent)
__ sets are autosomal and _ set determines the gender

A

46
23
22
1

67
Q

A ____ percentage of genetic material is redundant.

A

large

68
Q

__% of human DNA is identical

A

99

69
Q

Chromosomes live in the _____ of each cell

A

nucleus

70
Q

About __ in every ___ people carry a recessive genetic mutation for hearing loss

A

1 in every 7 ppl

71
Q

Parts of chromosomes:

The __ arm is the long piece of the chromosome and the __ arm is the short piece.

DNA strands are made of __ bases.

A

q
p
4

72
Q

What are the 4 bases of DNA?

A

Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine

73
Q

The Pinna has a natural resonation of about ____Hz.

Shape helps to localize sound to the ____ ___.

The ear canal is approx. ____ cm.

The ear canal is actually ___ shaped.

Outer 1/3 is ___ and ____

Inner 1/3 is ____

A
• 1500 Hz
• inner ear
• 2.5 cm
• s
• skin and cartilage
• bone
74
Q

The tympanic membrane has __ layers which are:

Pars___ and Pars ___

Ossicles: ____, ___ and ____.

The muscles: _________ and ____ known as the ____ ____ __ .

The middle ear space is surrounded by ____ bone.

A
• 3
• skin, fiber, mucous
• 9mm
• Pars tensa and Pars Flaccida
• Malleus, Incus and Stapes
• 27dB
• tensor tympani and stapedius
• acoustic reflex arc
• porous
75
Q

The Eustachian tube changes from infancy to early teen in what way?

A

-it changes angle, going from horizontal to having more of a slope

76
Q

Efferent sounds:

A

Brain to ear

descending pathway

77
Q

Afferent sounds:

A

Ear to brain

ascending pathway

78
Q

Acoustic Reflex Arc:

A

efferent vs afferent sounds

79
Q

Info on the Inner Ear:

The _____ deals with hearing

The ______ ____, ____ and _____ deal with balance. These are a part of the ________ system.

The ______ connects these two portions.

The internal auditory canal is made up of the __ ___, ____ ___, ____ and _____.

A
• Cochlea
• semicircular canals, utricle, saccule
• vestibular system
• vestibule
• VIII nerve, facial nerve VII, artery and veins
80
Q

The cochlea is a snail shaped bony structure that has _____ turns.

A

2 1/2

81
Q

The cochlea has 3 layers called _____.

A

Scala

82
Q

Scala vestibuli:

A
• top layer

- filled with perilymph

83
Q

Scala tympani:

A
• bottom layer

- filled with perilymph

84
Q

Scala media:

A
• middle layer

- filled with endolymph

85
Q

______ is a narrow opening at the apex that connects scala tympani and scala vestibuli.

A

-Helicotrema

86
Q

The Basilar Membrane supports the ____ __ ____ and is _____ at its base and ______ towards its apex.

A
• Organ of Corti
• stiffer
• flexible
87
Q

The Basilar Membrane changes its width from its base (________) to its apex (_______).

A
• .08-.16mm

- .42-.65mm

88
Q

The ear is very ___ ___ which means:

A
• tono-topic
• different frequencies interact with different parts of the cochlea which is a long curled tube that is wide at the base and thin at the apex)
89
Q

The scala media is separated from the scala vestibuli by ___________ _________ (top).

A

-Reissner’s membrane

90
Q

True or false: the Organ of Corti only has inner hair cells/

A

-False

It has inner and outer hair cells

91
Q

The number of outer hair cells of the Organ of Corti is _______ in __ rows.

A
• 12,000

- 3

92
Q

The number of inner hair cells of the Organ of Corti is _________ in ___________.

A
• 3,500

- a single row

93
Q

The hairs are basically like a ______________________ and all of the strands attach to the _________.

A
• frayed end of a rope

- cochlea

94
Q

The hair grows out of the ________ _________.

A

-Basilar membrane

95
Q

Which membrane lays over the top of the hair cells?

A

-The Tectorial membrane

96
Q

Which hair cells make contact with the tectorial membrane?

A

-only the outer hair cells

97
Q

The inner hair cells are __________.

A

-Afferent

98
Q

The outer hair cells are _________.

A

-Efferent

99
Q

Sound causes the basilar membrane to move ______________ while the tectorial membrane moves ______________. This motion causes: _____________________.

A
• in one direction
• in opposite directions
• shearing of the hair cells
100
Q

Hair cells _______ and either __________ or __________.

A
• bend
• shorten
• lengthen
101
Q

The “_____” at the base of the cell opens and allows ______________ which creates ____________.

A
• Gate
• chemical exchange
• neural signal
102
Q

Where do the nerves come together to become part of the auditory nerve?

A

-The Modiolus

103
Q

Describe the Modiolus:

A

-The gathering of nerves through the central bony part of the cochlea.

104
Q

When the VIII nerve meets the vestibular nerve, the nerve cells are now __________.

A

-Spiral Ganglion

105
Q

The VIII nerve/vestibular nerve enters the brainstem at the ______________.

A

-Cerebellopontine angle

106
Q

In the central auditory system, high and low frequency sounds maintain: _________________.

A

-Tonotopic fidelity

107
Q

Info about the Central Auditory system:

40% of transmission stays ___________.
60% of transmission crosses to the __________________.

The CAS codes for ________, ________ and ____________.

A
• ipsilateral
• contralateral
• timing, intensity and frequency
108
Q

The process of the Central Auditory system:

Enters…
Transmits….
and then to…

A

-Enters the central system at the cochlear nuclei
-Transmits to the superior olivary complex (first point of bilateral representation)
-Transmits to lateral leminiscus
(still tonotopic)

109
Q

What is bilateral transmission thought to help with?

A

-Hearing in noise

110
Q

Explain why children who have hearing loss in their right side of the brain struggle more in school:

A

-This occurs because the sound and info that goes into the right ear travels to the left part of the brain, which deals more with speech processing

111
Q

The process of the Central System:

Relays to…
Enters…
And then…

A
• Relays to inferior colliculus
• Enters the medial geniculate body
• Reticular formation in the central portion of the brainstem
112
Q

What is referred to as the largest “relay station” and what is it sensitive to?

A
• The inferior colliculus

- Highly sensitive to bilateral stimulation

113
Q

What is the last “station” before signal travels to the auditory cortex? Where is it found? What is its importance?

A
• The medial geniculate body
• In the thalamus
• needed for auditory discrimination
114
Q

What process is thought to regulate selective attention?

A

-reticular formation in the central portion of the brainstem

115
Q

Auditory cortex:

Sound enters…
Sound is sent…

A
• Sound enters the temporal lobes at Heschl’s gyrus

- Sound is sent to the Wernicke’s area

116
Q

What is the language center of the brain?

A

-Wernicke’s area

117
Q

Balance, postural control and stabilization of gaze are all central function of which system?

A

-Vestibular system

118
Q

Describe Oscillopsia:

A

-A condition where visual images oscillate and is caused by a disruption to the vestibulo-ocular reflex

119
Q

What organs are used to sense linear changes in movement such as acceleration, deceleration, rate and direction?

A

-The utricle and saccule

120
Q

What organ(s) monitor the body in space and responds to angular changes?

A

-The semicircular canals

121
Q

What is the enlarged area at the base of the semicircular canals?

A

-The Ampulla

122
Q

Describe the Cristea:

A

-Sense organ used for balance

123
Q

What are Otoliths?

A

-Small crystals made of calcium carbonate located in the inner ear that are usually free floating

124
Q

The vestibular nerve:

A
• Joins the cochlear nerve to become Nerve VIII

- Contains endolymph and perilymph, separated by an endolymphanic duct.

125
Q

The _______ ___ is an ear anomaly.

A

-Endolymphanic sac