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Gross Anatomy II > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (722):
1

What nerve's branches control motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression?

Facial Nerve (C.N. VII)

2

What nerve, when compressed, will lead to Bell's palsy?

Facial nerve (C.N. VII)

3

What nerve's branches control sensory innervation to the face?

Trigeminal nerve (C.N. V)

4

What are the 3 major branches of the trigeminal nerve?

Ophthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2), and Mandibular (V3)

5

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve distributes primarily to the face and scalp?

Ophthalmic nerve (V1)

6

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve is considered V1?

Ophthalmic nerve (V1)

7

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve distributes primarily to the cheek and the area lateral to the orbit?

Maxillary nerve (V2)

8

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve is considered V2?

Maxillary nerve (V2)

9

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve distributes primarily to the chin and temporal region?

Mandibular nerve (V3)

10

What major branch of the trigeminal nerve is considered V3?

Mandibular nerve (V3)

11

What are the 5 branches of the ophthalmic nerve?

Supraorbital nerve, Supratrochlear nerve, External Nasal nerve, Infratrochlear nerve, and Lacrimal nerve

12

What is the largest branch of the ophthalmic nerve?

Supraorbital nerve

13

What is the smallest branch of the ophthalmic nerve?

Lacrimal nerve

14

What branch of the ophthalmic nerve supplies the area between the eyes and nose?

Infratrochlear nerve

15

What are the 3 branches of the maxillary nerve?

Zygomaticotemporal nerve, Zygomaticofacial nerve, and Infraorbital nerve

16

What branch of the maxillary nerve is relatively small?

Zygomaticofacial nerve

17

What branch of the maxillary nerve is giant?

Infraorbital nerve

18

What branch of the maxillary nerve supplies the entire area over the cheek bone?

Infraorbital nerve

19

What branch of the maxillary nerve is the most frequently injured nerve with blows to the face?

Infraorbital nerve

20

Is the bone around the infraorbital nerve thick?

No

21

Is the bone around the infraorbital nerve thin?

Yes

22

What are the 3 branches of the mandibular nerve?

Auriculotemporal nerve, Buccal nerve, and Mental nerve

23

What is the largest branch of the mandibular nerve?

Auriculotemporal nerve

24

What branch of the mandibular nerve supplies the cheek?

Buccal nerve

25

What branch of the mandibular nerve supplies the chin?

Mental nerve

26

What condition is characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain occurring in an area of sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve?

Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)

27

What does Tic Douloureux mean?

Unhappy Tic

28

What can trigger trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)?

Often due to touch (could be from shaving or cold wind as well)

29

What branch of the trigeminal nerve does trigeminal neuralgia most commonly occur to?

Maxillary Division

30

What branch of the trigeminal nerve does trigeminal neuralgia second most commonly occur to?

Mandibular Division

31

What branch of the trigeminal nerve does trigeminal neuralgia least commonly occur to?

Ophthalmic Division

32

What is the cause of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)?

Cause is unknown

33

What cord level does the spinal trigeminal nucleus extend down to?

C4

34

What nucleus is involved with pain reception of the face?

Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus

35

What is the sensory innervation of the posterior aspect of the neck and scalp from?

Posterior (Dorsal) Primary Rami of cervical nerves 2 to 4

36

What is the sensory innervation to the occipital region?

Greater Occipital nerve (Posterior Primary Ramus of C2)

37

Which nerve is the posterior primary ramus of C2 synonymous with?

Greater Occipital nerve

38

What is the sensory innervation to the upper part of the back of the neck?

Third Occipital nerve (Posterior Primary Ramus of C3)

39

Which nerve is the posterior primary ramus of C3 synonymous with?

Third Occipital nerve

40

What is the sensory innervation to the lower part of the back of the neck?

posterior primary ramus of C4

41

Does C1 have posterior root carrying sensory fibers?

no, it is strictly a motor nerve

42

Which spinal nerve is strictly a motor nerve?

C1

43

What is the sensory innervation of the anterior and lateral aspect of the neck from?

anterior (ventral) primary rami of cervical nerves 2 to 4

44

What plexus is formed by the anterior primary rami of C1, C2, C3, and C4?

Cervical Plexus

45

What is the cervical plexus formed by?

anterior primary rami of C1, C2, C3, and C4

46

What spinal nerves supply sensory innervation to the skin of the upper limb (via brachial plexus)?

C5, C6, C7, and C8

47

What are the 4 sensory branches of the cervical plexus?

lesser occipital nerve (C2), great auricular nerve (C2 & C3), transverse cervical nerve (C2 & C3), and supraclavicular nerve (C3 & C4)

48

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus supplies the lateral part of the occipital region, posterior to the ear?

lesser occipital nerve (C2)

49

What is the segmental innervation of the lesser occipital nerve?

C2

50

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus supplies the angle of the mandible, and the area inferior to the ear?

great auricular nerve (C2 & C3)

51

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus accompanies the external jugular vein?

great auricular nerve (C2 & C3)

52

What is the segmental innervation of the great auricular nerve?

C2 and C3

53

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus supplies the anterior surface of the neck (the throat)?

transverse cervical nerve (C2 & C3)

54

What is the segmental innervation of the transverse cervical nerve?

C2 and C3

55

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus supplies the lateral surface of the neck?

supraclavicular nerve (C3 & C4)

56

What is the segmental innervation of the supraclavicular nerve?

C3 and C4

57

Which sensory branch of the cervical plexus has 3 subdivisions?

supraclavicular nerve

58

What are the 3 branches of the supraclavicular nerve (C3, C4)?

medial supraclavicular nerve, intermediate supraclavicular nerve, and lateral supraclavicular nerve

59

Where does the cervical plexus carry motor fibers to?

infrahyoid (strap) muscles used for swallowing and breathing

60

What muscles, supplied by the cervical plexus, are used for swallowing and breathing?

infrahyoid (strap) muscles

61

What is the loop from which the cervical plexus' motor fibers arise?

ansa cervicalis

62

What are the 2 parts of the ansa cervicalis?

superior root (primarily from C1) and inferior root (from C2 and C3)

63

Which portion of the ansa cervicalis descends from the hypoglossal nerve to join the inferior root?

superior root

64

What is the segmental innervation of the ansa cervicalis' superior root?

primarily C1; or C1 and C2

65

Which portion of the ansa cervicalis descends from cervical nerve branches to join the superior root?

inferior root

66

What is the segmental innervation of the ansa cervicalis' inferior root?

C2 and C3

67

Which 3 of the 4 infrahyoid muscles receives its innervation from the ansa cervicalis (C1, C2, & C3)?

sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and omohyoid

68

Which infrahyoid muscle receives its innervation exclusively from C1 fibers through the hypoglossal nerve?

thyrohyoid

69

Is the phrenic nerve usually considered to be part of the cervical plexus?

yes

70

What is the phrenic nerve's segmental innervation?

C3, C4, and C5 (C3, 4, and 5 keeps the diaphragm alive)

71

What nerve is the motor supply to the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve

72

What nerve is the sensory supply to some of the membranes of the thorax and abdomen?

phrenic nerve

73

What nerve can be found in the neck lying on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle?

phrenic nerve

74

What nerve runs vertically down the anterior scalene muscle and into the thorax?

phrenic nerve

75

What are the 3 superficial muscles of the neck?

platysma, sternocleidomastoid, and trapezius

76

What does platysma mean?

plate or flat

77

What is the origin of the platysma?

superficial fascia over the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles

78

What is the insertion of the platysma?

lower border of the mandible and the angle of the mouth

79

What is the nerve supply to the platysma?

cervical branch of facial nerve (C.N. VII)

80

What is the function of the platysma?

depresses the mandible and draws down the corner of the mouth

81

What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?

sternal head from the front of the manubrium, clavicular head from the medial third of the clavicle

82

What is the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?

lateral surface of mastoid process, lateral half of the superior nuchal line

83

What is the nerve supply to the sternocleidomastoid?

accessory nerve (C.N. XI)

84

What is the function of the sternocleidomastoid?

chief flexor of the head

85

What condition is a pathological contraction of the sternocleidomastoid?

torticollis

86

In the condition torticollis, is the head tilted toward the affected side?

yes

87

In the condition torticollis, is the head tilted away from the affected side?

no

88

In the condition torticollis is the face turned toward the affected side?

no

89

In the condition torticollis is the face turned away from the affected side?

yes

90

What are the 3 types of torticollis?

congenital torticollis, muscular torticollis, and spasmodic torticollis

91

Which type of torticollis results from a fibrous tissue tumor which develops at or shortly before birth?

congenital torticollis

92

Which type of torticollis is due to birth injury?

muscular torticollis

93

Which type of torticollis occurs in adults and is due to abnormal tonicity?

spasmodic torticollis

94

Which type of torticollis often responds well to chiropractic care?

spasmodic torticollis

95

What is the origin of the trapezius?

external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, and the spinous processes of the 7th cervical and all thoracic vertebrae

96

What is the insertion of the trapezius?

the lateral 3rd of the clavicle, spine of the scapula, and the acromion process

97

What is the nerve supply to the trapezius?

accessory nerve (C.N. XI) and C3 and C4 from the cervical plexus

98

What is the function of the trapezius?

the upper portion elevates, the middle portion retracts, and the lower portion depresses the scapula (also involved with scapulohumeral rhythm)

99

Which vein drains the face and scalp, and also contains a large amount of cerebral blood?

external jugular vein

100

What vein is formed immediately below the parotid gland?

external jugular vein

101

What vein is formed by the union of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein?

external jugular vein

102

What vein runs downward and backward along the lateral surface of the sternocleidomastoid, and empties into the subclavian vein?

external jugular vein

103

What vein is the only vein superficial to the sternocleidomastoid?

external jugular vein

104

What are the 6 tributaries of the external jugular vein?

retromandibular vein, posterior auricular vein, posterior external jugular vein, anterior jugular vein, transverse cervical vein, and suprascapular vein

105

What vein forms an arch at the jugular notch?

anterior jugular vein

106

When venous pressure is normal, is the external jugular vein visible?

no, maybe barely

107

What 2 conditions can cause the external jugular vein to become very prominent throughout its length?

congestive heart failure and obstruction of the superior vena cava

108

What types of people can develop prominent external jugular veins, and why?

opera singers and bagpipe players due to increased intrathoracic pressure during singing or playing

109

What structure is found along the external jugular vein, superficial to the sternocleidomastoid?

superficial cervical lymph node

110

What triangle of the neck lies in front of the sternocleidomastoid?

anterior triangle

111

What triangle of the neck lies behind the sternocleidomastoid?

posterior triangle

112

What are the 3 boundaries (anterior, posterior, and inferior) of the posterior triangle?

anterior boundary is the posterior border of sternocleidomastoid; posterior boundary is the anterior border of trapezius; inferior boundary is the superior border of the middle third of the clavicle

113

Are the important visceral structures of the neck found in the anterior triangle?

yes

114

Are the important visceral structures of the neck found in the posterior triangle?

no

115

What are the 3 boundaries (superior, anterior, and posterior) of the anterior triangle?

superior boundary is the inferior border of the mandible, anterior boundary is the anterior midline, and posterior boundary is the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

116

What is the apex of the anterior triangle?

inferior at the jugular notch

117

What is the roof of the anterior triangle formed by?

investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, the superficial cervical fascia, and the platysma

118

What are the 4 subdivisions of the anterior triangle?

submental triangle, submandibular (diagastric) triangle, carotid triangle, and muscular triangle

119

What triangle is the only one of the anterior subdivisions which is unpaired?

submental triangle

120

What are the 3 boundaries of the submental triangle?

left and right anterior bellies of diagastric, and the body of the hyoid bone

121

What makes up the floor of the submental triangle?

mylohyoid muscle

122

What are the 2 contents of the submental triangle?

minor veins and lymph nodes (submental lymph nodes)

123

What are the 3 boundaries of the submandibular (digastric) triangle?

the inferior border of the mandible, the anterior belly of digastric, and the posterior belly of digastric

124

What 2 muscles make up the floor of the submandibular (digastric) triangle?

mylohyoid and hyoglossus

125

What are the 6 contents of the submandibular (digastric) triangle?

submandibular gland (one of the 3 major salivary glands along with the parotid and sublingual), the internal carotid artery, facial artery, internal jugular vein, glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX), and the vagus nerve (C.N. X)

126

Which triangle should elicit caution when palpating or adjusting?

submandibular triangle

127

What are the 3 boundaries of the carotid triangle?

posterior belly of digastric, superior belly of omohyoid, and anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

128

What are the contents of the carotid triangle?

parts of the common and internal carotid arteries, the external carotid artery and 3 of its branches: the superior thyroid artery, lingual artery, and facial artery; also contained within the carotid triangle are the corresponding tributaries of the internal jugular vein: superior thyroid vein, lingual vein, and facial vein

129

What are the 3 boundaries of the muscular triangle?

superior belly of omohyoid, anterior midline of the neck, and the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

130

What makes up the floor of the muscular triangle?

posterior layer of pretracheal fascia

131

What are the 5 contents of the muscular triangle?

sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles, thyroid gland, trachea, and esophagus

132

What bone is located between the mandible and larynx, and serves as a point of attachment for many muscles?

hyoid bone

133

Does the hyoid bone articulate with any other bones?

no

134

What bone is often broken in strangulation?

hyoid bone

135

What are the 3 parts of the hyoid bone?

body, greater horn, and lesser horn

136

What part of the hyoid bone is the attachment point for the stylohyoid ligament?

lesser horn of the hyoid bone

137

What are 4 ribbon-like muscles which attach to the hyoid bone?

infrahyoid muscles

138

What muscles function primarily to move the hyoid bone and larynx?

infrahyoid muscles

139

What are the 4 infrahyoid muscles?

omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and thyrohyoid

140

What 2 muscles make up the superficial layer of infrahyoid muscles?

omohyoid and sternohyoid

141

What 2 muscles make up the deep layer of infrahyoid muscles?

sternothyroid and thyrohyoid

142

What is the fibrous sling attached to the clavicle around its intermediate tendon?

omohyoid

143

What is the origin of the omohyoid?

inferior belly of omohyoid originates from the upper border of the scapula; it ends in an intermediate tendon located deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle; the superior belly of omohyoid extends upward from this tendon

144

What is the insertion of the omohyoid?

the body of the hyoid bone

145

What is the nerve supply to the omohyoid?

ansa cervicalis (C1, C2, & C3)


146

What is the function of the omohyoid?

depresses the hyoid bone and larynx

147

What is the origin of the sternohyoid?

posterior surface of the manubrium, and the medial end of the clavicle

148

What is the insertion of the sternohyoid?

the body of the hyoid bone

149

What is the nerve supply to the sternohyoid?

ansa cervicalis (C1, C2, & C3)

150

What is the function of the sternohyoid?

depresses the hyoid bone and larynx

151

What is a fan-shaped muscle, deep to the sternohyoid?

sternothyroid

152

What is the origin of the sternothyroid?

posterior surface of the manubrium, inferior to the origin of the sternohyoid

153

What is the insertion of the sternothyroid?

the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage

154

What is the nerve supply to the sternothyroid?

ansa cervicalis (C1, C2, & C3)

155

What is the function of the sternothyroid?

depresses the larynx

156

What muscle is a continuation of sternothyroid?

thyrohyoid

157

What is the origin of the thyrohyoid?

the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage

158

What is the insertion of the thyrohyoid?

the body of the hyoid bone

159

What is the nerve supply to the thyrohyoid?

C1 through hypoglossal nerve

160

What is the function of the thyrohyoid?

depresses the hyoid bone

161

What are the 4 functions of all the muscles to depress the hyoid bone and larynx?

swallowing, breathing, speech, and if hyoid is fixed, digastric depresses the mandible

162

What is a dense, sheet-like layer of connective tissue?

fascia

163

What surrounds and supports both the superficial and deep structures of the neck?

cervical fascia

164

What are the 2 layers of cervical fascia?

superficial cervical fascia and deep cervical fascia

165

What is a thin layer of connective tissue which encloses the platysma muscle and contains the cutaneous nerves, superficial veins, and lymph nodes?

superficial cervical fascia

166

What are the lymph nodes contained within the superficial cervical fascia?

superficial cervical lymph nodes

167

What are the 4 subdivisions of the deep cervical fascia?

investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, pretracheal fascia, prevertebral fascia, and carotid sheath

168

What deep cervical fascia layer lies deep to the superficial cervical fascia, and splits to enclose the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?

investing layer of the deep cervical fascia

169

What deep cervical fascia layer encloses the thyroid gland, trachea, and esophagus?

pretracheal fascia

170

What deep cervical fascia layer encloses the vertebral column and the deep muscles of the back?

prevertebral fascia

171

What deep cervical fascia layer does the sympathetic trunk run through?

prevertebral fascia

172

What deep cervical fascia layer is a cylinder of fascia which extends from the base of the skull to the root of the neck?

carotid sheath

173

What 5 structures does the deep cervical fascia, carotid sheath, contain?

common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, and deep cervical lymph nodes

174

What is the largest vein of the neck?

internal jugular vein

175

What artery exits the carotid sheath before giving off its branches in the neck?

external carotid artery

176

What's function is to provide a slippery surface to reduce friction during gross movement of the head and neck, and swallowing?

fascial layers of the neck

177

What is the chiropractic significance of the fascial layers of the neck?

adhesions can cause neck pain and may be treated with myofascial release

178

What are the 2 clinical significances of the fascial layers of the neck?

they may serve as a channel for infection, for example the pretracheal fascia may allow an infection to spread from the head and neck to the mediastinum directly, and cancer involving the deep cervical lymph nodes can compress the internal jugular

179

What deep cervical fascia may allow an infection spread from the head and neck to the mediastinum directly?

pretracheal fascia

180

What is the opening through which structures of the neck pass into the thorax?

superior thoracic aperture (thoracic inlet)

181

What are the 3 boundaries of the superior thoracic aperture?

1st thoracic vertebra, 1st ribs and their cartilages, and manubrium of sternum

182

What shape is the superior thoracic aperture?

kidney shaped

183

What arteries pass through the superior thoracic aperture?

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, and internal thoracic artery

184

What vein passes through the superior thoracic aperture?

brachiocephalic vein

185

What 4 nerves pass through the superior thoracic aperture?

phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and sympathetic trunk

186

What 5 viscera structures pass through the superior thoracic aperture?

trachea, esophagus, cervical pleura (membrane that covers the lung), apex of the lung, and thymus

187

What is the membrane that covers the lung located in the superior thoracic aperture?

cervical pleura

188

What passes through the superior thoracic aperture immediately posterior to the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?

cervical pleura and apex of lung

189

What could a broken 1st rib or penetrating wound of the neck result in?

atelectasis or "lung collapse"

190

What part of the immune system produces T-lymphocytes?

thymus

191

What happens to T-cells in the thymus throughout life, and what does this result in?

T-cells mature in the thymus throughout life, and as the thymus involutes (shrinks up and become fatty) gradually after puberty the result is reduced immune function in the elderly

192

What is usually composed of 2 irregular lobes, and lies primarily behind the manubrium and body of the sternum?

thymus

193

What commonly exhibits extensions into the neck around the front and sides of the trachea?

thymus

194

How is the thymus positioned compared to the thyroid gland?

thymus lies inferiorly to the thyroid gland

195

What 2 muscles lie anterior to the thymus and thyroid gland?

sternohyoid and sternothyroid

196

What is the blood supply to the thymus?

internal thoracic artery

197

What is the nerve supply to the thymus?

stellate ganglion of sympathetic trunk and vagus

198

What is an endocrine organ which produces thyroxine and calcitonin?

thyroid gland

199

What spinal level is the thyroid gland at?

CV5 - TV1

200

What is the general shape of the thyroid gland?

H-shaped or U-shaped

201

What are the 3 parts of the thyroid gland?

left lobe of the thyroid gland, right lobe of the thyroid gland, and isthmus (connects right lobe to left lobe) of the thyroid gland

202

What percentage of thyroid glands have a pyramidal lobe, which extends upward from the isthmus as a finger of glandular tissue?

50%

203

What common variation found associated with the thyroid gland connects the isthmus of the thyroid gland with the hyoid bone?

levator glandulae thyroideae muscle

204

What 2 arteries provide the blood supply to the thyroid gland?

superior thyroid artery (from the external carotid artery) and inferior thyroid artery (from the thyrocervical trunk)

205

What artery is an inconstant branch to the thyroid gland, from the brachiocephalic trunk?

thyroid ima artery

206

What percentage of individuals have a thyroid ima artery?

10%

207

What is the clinical signifcance of the thyroid ima artery?

may be damaged in a tracheotomy

208

What 3 veins drain the blood from the thyroid gland?

superior thyroid vein (to the internal jugular vein) middle thyroid vein (to the internal jugular vein), and inferior thyroid vein (to the brachiocephalic vein)

209

What is the nerve supply to the thyroid gland?

superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia

210

What is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland that produces swelling in the anterior neck?

goiter

211

What type of goiter is due to dietary deficiency of iodine (necessary to produce thyroxine)?

endemic goiter

212

In what type of goiter does the thyroid gland enlarge to increase output because the hormone is largely inactive?

endemic goiter

213

What type of goiter has symptoms of hypothyroidism?

endemic goiter

214

What type of goiter is due to autoimmune disease?

exophthalmic goiter (Grave's disease)

215

In what type of goiter do thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins bind to receptor sites causing overactivity of the gland?

exophthalmic goiter (Grave's disease)

216

In what type of goiter is hormone active?

exophthalmic goiter (Grave's disease)

217

What type of goiter has symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

exophthalmic goiter (Grave's disease)

218

What type of goiter is also known as Grave's disease?

exophthalmic goiter

219

What nerve branches off of the vagus within the thorax, and then travels up into the neck to supply motor innervation to all but 1 of the laryngeal muscles?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

220

What nerve, within the neck, lies first on the posterior surface of the thyroid lobe and then deep to the lobe?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

221

What are glands which are involved in calcium homeostasis?

parathyroid glands

222

Are the parathyroid glands essential to life?

yes

223

What are small ovoid bodies located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland?

parathyroid gland

224

How many parathyroid glands are there usually, and what are the other variations?

4, though the number varies from 2 to 6

225

What are the 2 arteries that provide blood supply to the parathyroid glands?

inferior thyroid artery and superior thyroid artery

226

What is the nerve supply to the parathyroid glands?

inferior or middle cervical sympathetic ganglia

227

What are 3 factors contributing to the difficulty of thyroid surgery?

presence of parathyroid gland, vascularity, and presence of the recurrent laryngeal nerve

228

What spinal level does the trachea begin at?

CV6

229

Within the thorax, what does the trachea split into?

left and right main bronchi

230

What is the anatomical name for the "windpipe?"

trachea

231

What supports the trachea's walls?

a series of incomplete cartilaginous rings which are open posteriorly

232

Which direction are the trachea's cartilaginous rings open?

posteriorly

233

What muscle spans the posterior gap of the trachea's incomplete cartilaginous rings?

trachealis muscle (smooth muscle)

234

What type of muscle is the trachealis muscle?

smooth muscle

235

What artery provides blood supply to the trachea?

inferior thyroid artery

236

What is the nerve supply to the trachea?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

237

What does the opening of the trachea allow?

expansion of esophagus during swallowing

238

What is a muscular tube which connects the pharynx to the stomach?

esophagus

239

Where does the esophagus begin compared to the spine?

level of CV6

240

How is the esophagus positioned compared to the trachea?

esophagus lies posterior to the trachea

241

What are the main arteries of the head and neck?

left and right common carotid arteries

242

The common carotid artery ascends within the ______ ______ to the ____ ________ where it splits into the ________ _______ artery and ________ _______ artery.

carotid sheath; carotid triangle; internal carotid; external carotid

243

Which branch of the common carotid artery has no branches in the neck?

internal carotid artery

244

Which branch of the carotid artery enters the skull through the carotid canal (in the temporal bone) to supply blood to the brain?

internal carotid artery

245

What branch of the carotid artery is the main source of blood to the structures of the neck, face, and scalp (structures external to the skull)?

external carotid artery

246

What are the 8 branches of the external carotid artery?

superior thyroid artery, ascending pharyngeal artery, lingual artery, facial artery, occipital artery, posterior auricular artery, superficial temporal artery, and maxillary artery

247

What branches of the external carotid artery have a palpable pulse?

facial artery and superficial temporal artery

248

What are the 2 terminal branches of the external carotid artery?

superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery

249

What is a slight dilation of the internal carotid artery where it joins the common carotid?

carotid sinus

250

What part of the carotid artery is a baroreceptor (blood pressure sensor)?

carotid sinus

251

What is the nerve supply to the carotid sinus?

carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX)

252

What is a small reddish-brown mass located within or deep to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery?

carotid body

253

What part of the carotid artery is a chemoreceptor which detects changes in the chemical makeup of the blood within the carotid?

carotid body

254

What is the nerve supply to the carotid body?

carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX)

255

What part of the carotid artery senses an increase in CO2 or decrease in O2 which then causes a reflex to increase rate and volume of ventilation?

carotid body

256

What part of the carotid artery senses an increase in blood pressure resulting in a decrease in heart rate?

carotid sinus

257

Is the internal jugular vein ever visible topographically?

no

258

What are the 2 major veins of the neck?

external and internal jugular veins

259

What is usually the largest vein of the neck?

internal jugular vein

260

What vein begins at the jugular foramen as the direct continuation of the sigmoid sinus?

internal jugular vein

261

Where does the internal jugular vein drain?

brachiocephalic vein

262

What is the dilation of the internal jugular vein at its origin below the jugular foramen?

superior jugular bulb

263

What are the 6 tributaries of the internal jugular vein?

inferior petrosal sinus, pharyngeal veins, facial vein, lingual vein, superior thyroid vein, and middle thyroid vein

264

What is the dilation of the internal jugular vein near its termination into the brachiocephalic vein?

inferior jugular bulb

265

What nerve emerges from the medulla oblongata and passes through the jugular foramen, along with the vagus and accessory nerves?

glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX)

266

What are the 6 branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

tympanic nerve, branch to the carotid sinus, pharyngeal branch, branch to the stylopharyngeus, tonsillar branch, and lingual branch

267

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is sensory to the tympanic cavity and secretomotor to the parotid gland?

tympanic nerve

268

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) senses pain of otitis media?

tympanic nerve

269

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is sensory to both the carotid sinus and carotid body?

branch to the carotid sinus

270

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve unites with branches from the vagus and sympathetic trunk to form the pharyngeal plexus?

pharyngeal branch

271

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is sensory to the pharynx?

pharyngeal branch

272

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) senses pain in acute pharyngitis?

pharyngeal branch

273

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is the afferent limb of the gag reflex?

pharyngeal branch

274

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is the motor to the stylopharyngeus muscle?

branch to the sytopharyngeus

275

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) is sensory to the mucous membrane over the tonsil and to the soft palate?

tonsillar branch

276

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) senses pain in tonsillitis?

tonsillar branch

277

What branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (C.N. IX) supplies taste and general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue?

lingual branch

278

What is the longest cranial nerve, with an extensive distribution in the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen?

vagus nerve (C.N. X)

279

What does vagus mean?

wanderer

280

What nerve emerges from the medulla oblongata, and exits the skull through the jugular foramen along with glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves?

vagus nerve (C.N. X)

281

What are the vagus nerve's 2 ganglia in the neck?

superior (jugular) ganglion and inferior (nodose ganglion)

282

Are the 2 ganglia of the vagus nerve exclusively sensory?

yes

283

Are the 2 ganglia of the vagus nerve exclusively motor?

no, they are exclusively sensory

284

Which ganglia of the vagus nerve is located in the jugular foramen?

superior (jugular) ganglion

285

What ganglia of the vagus nerve is big enough to look like a lymph node?

inferior (nodose) ganglion

286

What are the 5 branches of the vagus nerve in the head and neck?

meningeal branch, auricular branch, pharyngeal branch, and superior laryngeal branch

287

Which branch of the vagus nerve arises from the superior ganglion and supplies the dura mater with sensory innervation?

meningeal branch

288

What branch of the vagus nerve senses pain from cervicogenic headaches?

meningeal branch

289

What branch of the vagus nerve arises from the superior ganglion and is sensory to the auricle, the floor of the external auditory meatus, and the tympanic membrane?

auricular branch

290

What branch of the vagus nerve senses pain in ottis externa (swimmer's ear)?

auricular branch

291

What 2 branches of the vagus nerve arise from the superior ganglion?

meningeal branch and auricular branch

292

What branch of the vagus nerve arises from the inferior ganglion and is the chief motor nerve to the muscles of the pharynx and soft palate?

pharyngeal branch

293

What branch of vagus nerve has most of its fibers originate from the cranial part of the accessory nerve which then join up with the vagus?

pharyngeal branch

294

What branch of the vagus nerve joins with branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve and sympathetic trunk, to form the pharyngeal plexus?

pharyngeal branch

295

What plexus is motor to all of the muscles of the pharynx except for stylopharyngeus (innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve), and to all of the muscles of the soft palate except for tensor veli palatini (innervated by the trigeminal nerve)?

pharyngeal plexus

296

What is the stylopharyngeus muscle innervated by?

glossopharyngeal nerve

297

What is the tensor veli palatini muscle innervated by?

trigeminal nerve

298

What branch of the vagus nerve arises from the inferior ganglion and then divides into an internal and external branch?

superior laryngeal nerve

299

What branch of the superior laryngeal nerve is sensory to the mucous membrane of the larynx superior to the true vocal folds?

internal laryngeal nerve

300

What branch of the superior laryngeal nerve is motor to the cricothyroid and inferior constrictor muscles?

external laryngeal nerve

301

What 2 branches of the vagus nerve arise from the inferior ganglion?

pharyngeal branch and superior laryngeal nerve

302

What branch of the vagus nerve arises within the thorax and then ascends back into the neck in the groove between the trachea and esophagus, and is closely applied to the posterior surface of the thyroid gland?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

303

What branch of the vagus nerve is sensory to the mucous membrane of the larynx below the true vocal folds, and to the trachea?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

304

What is the most important function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve?

motor to all of the muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid

305

What branch of the vagus nerve is motor to all of the muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

306

What clinical consequence of damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve results in respiratory distress, hoarseness aka partial aphonia?

unilateral damage

307

What clinical consequence of damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve results in complete aphonia and may result in suffocation (due to spasm of the vocal cords)

bilateral damage

308

What are the 4 causes of damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve?

trauma during thyroid surgery, goiter or thyroid tumor, lung tumor, and aortic aneurysm on the left side only

309

What side does the aortic aneurysm have to be on in order to cause damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve?

left side only

310

What are the 2 parts of the accessory nerve?

cranial part (originates from the medulla oblongata) and spinal part (originates from the sides of the spinal cord)

311

What part of the accessory nerve originates from the medulla oblongata?

cranial part

312

What part of the accessory nerve originates from the sides of the spinal cord?

spinal part

313

The _____ part of the accessory nerve ascends through the foramen magnum and joins the _____ part for a short distance and both parts exit through the jugular foramen.

spinal; cranial

314

What part of the accessory nerve joins the vagus just above the inferior vagal ganglion?

cranial part

315

What part of the accessory nerve supplies the vagus with motor fibers that travel in the pharyngeal branch of the vagus to the muscles of the pharynx and the recurrent laryngeal nerve to the muscles of the larynx?

cranial part

316

Which part of the accessory nerve is motor to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles?

spinal part of the accessory nerve

317

What nerve is the motor nerve to the tongue?

hypoglossal nerve (C.N. XII)

318

What nerve originates from the medulla oblongata, and exits the skull through the hypoglossal canal where it loops downward and forward, deep to the posterior belly and intermediate tendon of digastric muscle?

hypoglossal nerve (C.N. XII)

319

While some of the fibers carried by the hypoglossal are proper to the nerve itself, others originate from where, which merely "hitch a ride" with hypoglossal?

cervical spinal nerves

320

What are the 4 branches of the hypoglossal nerve?

meningeal branches, superior root of the ansa cervicalis, nerves to thyrohyoid and geniohyoid, and lingual branches

321

What branch of the hypoglossal nerve supplies the dura mater?

meningeal branches

322

What branch of the hypoglossal nerve is involved with pain associated with cervicogenic headaches?

meningeal branches

323

What branch of the hypoglossal consists mainly of C1 fibers, and unites with the inferior root of the ansa cervicalis (from C2 and C3) to form the ansa cervicalis, which is motor to the infrahyoid muscles (sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and omohyoid)?

superior root of the ansa cervicalis

324

What branches of the hypoglossal consist of C1 fibers and are motor to the thyrohyoid and geniohyoid muscles?

nerves to thyrohyoid and geniohyoid

325

What branch of the hypoglossal nerve is motor to the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

lingual branches

326

Where does the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk begin?

base of the skull

327

What is the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk continuous with?

thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk

328

What fibers of the sympathetic trunk supply structures of the head and neck and originate from T1 to T3 and then travel up sympathetic trunk to 1 of several cervical ganglia where they synapse?

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

329

What fibers of the sympathetic trunk distribute from the ganglia to the blood vessels, smooth muscle, and glands of the head and neck?

postganglionic sympathetic fibers

330

What are the 4 major branches of the cervical sympathetic ganglia?

superior cervical ganglion, middle cervical ganglion, vertebral ganglion, and cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion

331

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia lies at the level of cervical vertebrae 1 through 3, immediately below the base of the skull?

superior cervical ganglion

332

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia supplies the heart?

superior cervical ganglion

333

What are the 3 branches of the superior cervical ganglion?

internal carotid nerve, superior cervical cardiac nerve, and branch to the pharyngeal plexus

334

What branch of the superior cervical ganglion is a relatively large nerve which accompanies the internal carotid artery into the skull?

internal carotid nerve

335

What branch of the superior cervical ganglion supplies everything in the head with sympathetic innervation?

internal carotid nerve

336

What is the superior cervical ganglion branch to the cardiac plexus?

superior cervical cardiac nerve

337

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia lies at the level of cervical vertebra 6?

middle cervical ganglion

338

What is the middle cervical ganglion branch to the cardiac plexus?

middle cervical cardiac nerve

339

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia is variable and often fused with either the middle or inferior cervical ganglion?

vertebral ganglion

340

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia lies at the level of cervical vertebra 7 and gives off a branch to the plexus along the vertebral artery?

vertebral ganglion

341

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion to the 1st thoracic ganglion?

cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion

342

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia supplies the upper extremity with sympathetic innervation and the thymus?

cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion

343

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia lies at the level of cervical vertebra 7 through thoracic vertebra 1?

cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion

344

What branch of the cervical sympathetic ganglia is located posterior to the vertebral artery and anterior to the transverse process of cervical vertebra 7 and the neck of the 1st rib?

cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion

345

What is the cervicothoracic (stellate) ganglion branch to the cardiac plexus?

inferior cervical cardiac nerve

346

What is the nerve bundle which loops anterior to the subclavian artery, connecting the vertebral ganglion to the cervicothoracic ganglion?

ansa subclavia

347

What is the largest and sturdiest facial bone?

mandible (lower jaw)

348

What are the 6 parts of the mandible?

body, alveolar process, ramus, angle, condylar process, and coronoid process

349

What is the large horizontal part of the mandible?

body

350

What part of the mandible is the upper border of the body, containing the tooth sockets (alveoli)?

alveolar process

351

What are the tooth sockets known as?

alveoli

352

What is the vertically ascending part of the mandible?

ramus

353

What part of the mandible is at the posterior terminus of the body?

angle

354

What part of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone to form the temporomandibular joint?

condylar process

355

What part of the mandible is the area of attachment for muscles of mastication?

coronoid process

356

What are the processes that come off of the ramus of the mandible?

condylar process and coronoid process

357

What major cause of migraine headaches is a misalignment of the temporomandibular joint?

temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome

358

What are the 5 features of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible?

superior mental (genial) spine, inferior mental (genial) spine, digastric fossa, mylohyoid line, sublingual fossa, and submandibular fossa

359

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the origin of the genioglossus muscle?

superior mental (genial) spine

360

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the origin of the geniohyoid muscle?

inferior mental (genial) spine

361

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the origin of the anterior belly of digastric?

digastric fossa

362

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the origin of the mylohyoid muscle?

mylohyoid line

363

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the location of the sublingual salivary gland?

sublingual fossa

364

What feature of the internal (lingual) surface of the mandible is the location of part of the submandibular gland?

submandibular fossa

365

What is the origin of the digastric muscle?

posterior belly from the mastiod process, anterior belly from the digastric fossa

366

What is the insertion of the digastric muscle?

both bellies "insert" into the hyoid bone by an intermediate tendon which connects them together; the intermediate tendon is strapped to the hyoid bone by a fibrous loop

367

What is the nerve supply to the digastric muscle?

posterior belly by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (C.N. VII), anterior belly by the nerve to mylohyoid (C.N. V)

368

What is the function of the digastric muscle?

elevates the hyoid bone and depresses the mandible when hyoid is fixed

369

What is the origin of the mylohyoid muscle?

mylohyoid line

370

What is the insertion of the mylohyoid muscle?

body of hyoid bone, median raphe

371

What is a seam where fibers come together and interweave?

raphe

372

Wha is the nerve supply to the mylohyoid muscle?

nerve to mylohyoid (C.N. V)

373

What is the function of the mylohyoid muscle?

elevates hyoid bone and floor of the mouth

374

What is the origin of the geniohyoid muscle?

inferior mental spine

375

What is the insertion of the geniohyoid muscle?

body of hyoid bone

376

What is the nerve supply to the geniohyoid muscle?

C1 fibers through hypoglossal

377

What is the function of the geniohyoid muscle?

elevates hyoid bone and tongue

378

What is the largest muscle of the tongue?

genioglossus muscle

379

What is the origin of the genioglossus muscle?

superior mental spine

380

What is the insertion of the genioglossus muscle?

tip and entire undersurface of tongue

381

What is the nerve supply to the genioglossus muscle?

hypoglossal nerve

382

What is the function of the genioglossus muscle?

draws tongue forward, protrudes tip of tongue

383

What is the origin of the hyoglossus muscle?

body and greater horn of hyoid bone

384

What is the insertion of the hyoglossus muscle?

body and greater horn of hyoid bone (upper surface)

385

What is the nerve supply to the hyoglossus muscle?

hypoglossal nerve

386

What is the function of the hyoglossus muscle?

draws tongue downward

387

What muscle slip of the hyoglossus may take origin from the lesser horn of the hyoid bone?

chondroglossus

388

What is the origin of the styloglossus muscle?

styloid process

389

What is the insertion of the styloglossus muscle?

sides of the tongue

390

What is the nerve supply to the styloglossus muscle?

hypoglossal nerve

391

What is the function of the styloglossus muscle?

draws tongue upward and backward

392

What muscle is pierced by the intermediate tendon of digastric?

stylohyoid muscle

393

What is the origin of the stylohyoid muscle?

styloid process

394

What is the insertion of the stylohyoid muscle?

body of hyoid bone

395

What is the nerve supply to the stylohyoid muscle?

facial nerve

396

What is the function of the stylohyoid muscle?

elevates hyoid bone and tongue

397

What is one of the 3 paired salivary glands that wraps around the posterior border of the mylohyoid?

submandibular gland

398

What are the 3 paired salivary glands?

submandibular, parotid, and sublingual

399

What are the 2 parts of the submandibular gland?

superficial part and deep part

400

What part of the submandibular gland is large and lies within the submandibular triangle and in the submandibular fossa?

superficial part

401

What part of the submandibular gland is small and lies superior to the mylohyoid muscle?

deep part

402

What duct is 5 cm long and opens into the oral cavity on the sublingual caruncle, located lateral to the frenulum of the tongue?

submandibular duct

403

What is the innervation of the submandibular gland?

parasympathetic fibers form the facial nerve (C.N. VII) via the submandibular ganglion

404

What is the smallest of the 3 major salivary glands?

sublingual gland

405

What major salivary gland lies superior to the mylohyoid muscle, in the sublingual fossa?

sublingual gland

406

What major salivary gland empties into the floor of the mouth by 12 short ducts, located along the sublingual fold?

sublingual gland

407

What is the innervation of the sublingual gland?

parasympathetic fibers from the facial nerve (CN VII) via the submandibular ganglion

408

What nerves are found associated with the mandible?

lingual, glossopharyngeal, and hypoglossal

409

What blood vessels are found associated with the mandible?

lingual artery and vein, and facial artery and vein

410

What 2 lymph nodes are associated with the mandible?

submandibular and submental lymph nodes

411

What are the 4 functions of the nasal cavity?

provide an airway, olfaction, warming and moistening of inspired air, and cleansing of inspired air

412

What extends from the nostrils (nares) anteriorly to the choanae (plane of choanae) posteriorly and divides into left and right chambers by the nasal septum?

nasal cavity

413

What are the posterior apertures of the nasal cavity which open into the nasopharynx?

choanae

414

What part of the external nose is the free end of the nose?

tip

415

What part of the external nose connects the nose to the forehead?

root

416

What part of the external nose are the nostrils?

nares

417

What part of the external nose binds the nares laterally?

alae

418

What are the 4 boundaries of the nasal cavity?

roof, floor, medial wall (nasal septum), and lateral wall

419

What boundary of the nasal cavity is formed by the nasal bone, frontal bone, cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, and the body of the sphenoid bone?

roof

420

What boundary of the nasal cavity is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone?

floor

421

What does the palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone together form?

hard palate

422

What boundary of the nasal cavity is formed by the septal cartilage, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, and the vomer?

medial wall (nasal septum)

423

What condition is when the nasal septum does not lie in the median plane?

deviated septum

424

When can a deviated septum cause breathing difficulties, and why?

severely deviated septum can touch the lateral wall and cause breathing difficulties

425

Can a deviated septum exacerbate snoring?

yes

426

What are the 3 causes of a deviated septum?

congenital malformation (least common), birth injury, and postnasal trauma (most common)

427

What is the most common cause of deviated septum?

postnasal trauma

428

What is the least common cause of deviated septum?

congenital malformation

429

What boundary of the nasal cavity is formed by the nasal bone, frontal process of the maxilla, lacrimal bone, ethmoid bone, inferior nasal concha, perpendicular plate of the palatine bone, and medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone?

lateral wall

430

What boundary of the nasal cavity is characterized by a series of projections termed conchae, which jut medially into the nasal cavity?

lateral wall

431

What are the 3 conchae of the lateral wall?

superior nasal concha (of ethmoid bone), middle nasal concha (of ethmoid bone), and inferior nasal concha (a separate bone)

432

Which 2 conchae are features of the ethmoid bone?

superior and middle nasal conchae

433

Which concha is not a feature of the ethmoid bone?

inferior nasal concha

434

What are the 2 functions of the nasal concha?

increase surface area (warming, moistening, cleaning air) and increase turbulence (increases olfaction and other 3 functions)

435

What is a frequent anatomical variation among the nasal conchae?

there will be a highest nasal concha above the superior nasal concha which is also part of the ethmoid bone

436

What is a small space located above and behind the superior nasal concha that receives the opening of the sphenoid sinus?

sphenoethmoidal recess

437

What is a space below the superior nasal concha that receives the opening of the posterior ethmoidal cells?

superior meatus

438

What is a space below the middle nasal concha that receives the openings of the frontal sinus (frontonasal duct or infundibulum), maxillary sinus, middle ethmoidal cells, and anterior ethmoidal cells?

middle meatus

439

What is a rounded projection into the middle meatus that has middle ethmoidal cells open into it?

ethmoidal bulla

440

What is a curved slit lying below the ethmoidal bulla within the middle meatus that has the frontonasal duct, anterior ethmoidal cells, and maxillary sinus open into it?

hiatus semilunaris

441

What is the space below the inferior nasal concha that receives the opening of the nasolacrimal duct?

inferior meatus

442

What connects the lacrimal sac of the orbit to the nasal cavity and drains off excess tears?

nasolacrimal duct

443

What is the area just inside each nostril that contains hair, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands?

nasal vestibule

444

What is the lower two thirds of the nasal cavity known as?

respiratory region

445

What is the superior nasal concha and the upper 1/3 of the nasal septum?

olfactory region

446

What contains the fibers of the olfactory nerve (CN I) that give us our sense of smell and pass down through the cribriform plate?

olfactory region

447

At what rate do people over 50 years of age lose olfactory receptor cells per year, and what can speed this up?

1% per year, cocaine use can speed this up

448

What is a loss of olfaction?

anosmia

449

Where is special sensory innervation of the nasal cavity from?

olfactory nerve (CN I)

450

Where is general sensory innervation of the nasal cavity from?

branches of the maxillary and ophthalmic divisions of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)

451

Where is autonomic innervation (both sympathetic and parasympathtic) of the nasal cavity from?

pterygopalatine ganglion

452

Is the nasal cavity richly vascularized?

yes

453

Is the nasal cavity poorly vascularized?

no

454

What 2 branches are the primary blood supply to the nasal cavity?

sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery and anterior ethmoidal branch of the ophthalmic artery

455

What condition is common due to richness of blood supply?

epistaxis (nosebleed)

456

What are the 2 forms of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

mild form and severe form

457

Which form of epistaxis (nosebleed) involves small branches in or near the vestibule and is caused by minor trauma and/or low humidity?

mild form

458

Which form of epistaxis (nosebleed) involves spurting arterial blood and results from rupture of the sphenopalatine artery at 1 of its major anastomoses, caused by major trauma?

severe form

459

What 3 causes of epistaxis (nosebleed) can lead to both mild and severe forms?

hypertension, blood disorders, and cocaine abuse

460

Where does lymph from the nasal cavity drain into?

deep cervical nodes

461

What are the 2 possible reasons for the formation of the paranasal sinuses?

Wolff's law and decrease weight of skull

462

What are cavities found within the bones of the face that develop as outgrowths of the nasal cavity and as a result, all of them open into the nasal cavity?

paranasal sinuses

463

What openings into the nasal cavity facilitate drainage of the sinuses?

openings from the paranasal sinuses to the nasal cavity

464

What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?

frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoidal sinuses

465

What paranasal sinus lies in the frontal bone and opens into the hiatus semilunaris of the middle meatus via the frontonasal duct?

frontal sinus

466

What is the most frequently prone sinus to infection because it is poorly drained due to its opening in a superior position?

maxillary sinus

467

What is the largest of the paranasal sinuses?

maxillary sinus

468

What paranasal sinus lies within the maxilla on each side, lateral to the nasal cavity and inferior to the orbit, opens into the hiatus semilunaris within the middle meatus?

maxillary sinus

469

What is the only paranasal sinus which may be present at birth?

maxillary sinus

470

What paranasal sinus lies within the body of the sphenoid bone, and opens into the sphenoethmoidal recess?

sphenoidal sinus

471

What paranasal sinus consists of several groups of ethmoidal cells which lies within the ethmoid bone between the orbit and the nasal cavity?

ethmoidal sinus

472

What are the 3 groups of ethmoidal cells inside of the ethmoidal sinus?

posterior ethmoidal cell (open into the superior meatus), middle ethmoidal cells (open into the ethmoidal bulla within the middle meatus), and anterior ethmoidal cells (open into the hiatus semilunaris within the middle meatus)

473

What ethmoidal cell opens into the superior meatus?

posterior ethmoidal cell

474

What ethmoidal cell opens into the ethmoidal bulla within the middle meatus?

middle ethmoidal cell

475

What ethmoidal cell opens into the hiatus semilunaris within the middle meatus?

anterior ethmoidal cell

476

What 6 areas can an infection of the nasal cavity spread to?

paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), nasopharynx (acute pharyngitis via choanae), lacrimal appartus and conjunctiva (conjunctivitis via nasolacrimal duct), middle ear (otitis media via pharyngotympanic tube), anterior cranial fossa (meningitis or brain abscess via cribriform plate), and mastoid air cells (mastoiditis via aditus from middle ear)

477

What does cerebrospinal fluid dripping through the nose indicate damage to?

damage to the cribriform plate (halo sign)

478

What is a sign that there is damage to the cribriform plate?

halo sign

479

What are the 5 boundaries of the oral cavity?

roof, floor, anterior and lateral, and posterior

480

What boundary of the oral cavity consists of the palate?

roof

481

What boundary of the oral cavity consist of the tongue and oral mucosa, supported by the mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles?

floor

482

What boundary of the oral cavity consists of the lips and cheeks?

anterior and lateral boundaries

483

What boundary of the oral cavity consists of the oropharyngeal isthmus, demarcated by the palatoglossal arch?

posterior boundary

484

What are the 2 parts of the oral cavity?

oral vestibule and oral cavity proper

485

What portion of the oral cavity lies between the lips and gums, or cheeks and gums; in other words, the portion of the oral cavity external to the tooth rows?

oral vestibule

486

What are the 2 openings into the oral vestibule?

labial glands (small salivary glands) and parotid duct (opens lateral to the maxillary 2nd molar within the vestibule)

487

What opening into the oral vestibule are small salivary glands?

labial glands

488

What opening into the oral vestibule opens lateral to the maxillary 2nd molar within the vestibule?

parotid duct

489

What portion of the oral cavity lies internal to the tooth rows?

oral cavity proper

490

What are the 2 mobile musculofibrous folds which bind the opening of the mouth?

lips and cheeks

491

What represents the fusion of the 2 sides of the maxilla?

philtrum

492

What is the median groove seen externally which extends from the nose to the vermilion border of the upper lip?

philtrum

493

What are the 2 median folds each lip is connected to the corresponding gum by?

frenulum of the upper lip and frenulum of the lower lip

494

What muscle and gland do the lips contain?

orbicularis oris muscle and labial gland

495

What muscle and gland do the cheeks contain?

buccinator muscle and buccal glands (which are similar to the labial glands of the lips)

496

What forms both the roof of the mouth and the floor of the nasal cavity and is arches both transversely and anteroposteriorly?

palate

497

What are the 2 parts of the palate?

hard palate (forms the anterior 2/3 of the palate) and soft palate (forms the posterior 1/3 of the palate)

498

What part of the palate forms the anterior 2/3?

hard palate

499

What part of the palate forms the posterior 1/3?

soft palate

500

What forms a bony partition between the nasal and oral cavities?

hard palate

501

What 2 palatine bones does the hard palate consist of?

palatine process of the maxilla (anteriorly) and horizontal plate of the palatine bone (posteriorly)

502

What bone does the hard palate consist of anteriorly?

palatine process of the maxilla

503

What bone does the hard palate consist of posteriorly?

horizontal plate of the palatine bone

504

What are the 3 foramina in the hard palate?

incisive foramen, greater palatine foramen, and lesser palatine foramen

505

What 2 foramina in the hard palate transmit nerves and vessels of the same name?

greater palatine foramen and lesser palatine foramen

506

What covers the hard palate and presents a palatine raphe which ends anteriorly in the incisive papilla?

mucoperiosteum

507

What extends laterally within the mucoperiosteum and aids in gripping food against the tongue during mastication?

transverse palatine folds

508

What is a mobile fibromuscular fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate?

soft palate

509

What is elevated during swallowing to close the opening between the nasopharynx above and the oropharynx below?

soft palate

510

What are the 2 lateral arches that the soft palate is continuous with?

palatoglossal arch and palatopharyngeal arch

511

What is the palatoglossal arch made up of superficially?

palatoglossal fold

512

What is the palatoglossal arch made up of deep to the fold?

palatoglossus muscle

513

What is the palatopharyngeal arch made up of superficially?

palatopharyngeal fold

514

What is the palatopharyngeal arch made up of deep to the fold?

palatopharyngeus muscle

515

What is the median projection of the soft palate?

uvula

516

What lies between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches on each side and contains the palatine tonsil?

tonsillar fossa

517

What are the 3 muscles of the soft palate?

musculus uvulae, levator veli palatini, and tensor veli palatini

518

What is the origin of the musculus uvulae?

posterior nasal spine

519

What is the insertion of the musculus uvulae?

mucous membrane of uvula

520

What is the nerve supply to the musculus uvulae?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

521

What is the function of the musculus uvulae?

elevates the uvula

522

What is the origin of the levator veli palatini?

inferior surface of temporal bone

523

What is the insertion of the levator veli palatini?

aponeurosis of soft palate

524

What is the nerve supply to the leavtor veli palatini?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

525

What is the function of the levator veli palatini?

elevates the soft palate

526

What is the origin of the tensor veli palatini?

scaphoid fossa of the medial pterygoid plate

527

What is the insertion of the tensor veli palatini?

the tendon winds around the pterygoid hamulus and inserts into the aponeurosis

528

What is the nerve supply to the tensor veli palatini?

mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (CN V)

529

What is the function of the tensor veli palatini?

tenses soft palate, opens pharyngotypmanic tube

530

The loss of tonus in what muscles can lead to snoring?

muscles of the soft palate

531

What is the innervation of the hard palate?

greater palatine and nasopalatine nerves

532

What is the innervation of the soft palate?

lesser palatine nerve

533

What is the blood supply to the hard palate?

greater palatine artery (from maxillary)

534

What is the blood supply to the soft palate?

lesser palatine and facial arteries

535

Damage to what nerve causes uvula to deviate to the right due to paralysis of the musculus uvulae of the left side?

damage to the left vagus nerve (CN X)

536

Damage to what nerve causes uvula to deviate to the left due to paralysis of the musculus uvulae of the right side?

damage to the right vagus nerve (CN X)

537

What is a muscular organ which is attached to the hyoid bone, mandible, styloid process, palate, and pharynx by muscles?

tongue

538

What are the 4 functions of the tongue?

taste, mastication, swallowing, and speech

539

What are the 5 parts of the tongue?

apex, margin, dorsum, inferior surface, and root

540

What part of the tongue rests against incisor teeth?

apex

541

What part of the tongue rests against teeth and gums on each side?

margin

542

What part of the tongue is the upper surface of the tongue?

dorsum

543

What part of the tongue is the lower surface of the tongue?

inferior surface

544

What part of the tongue is the attached base of the tongue?

root

545

What part of the tongue lies partly in the oral cavity and partly in the oropharynx?

dorsum

546

What is a V shaped groove which divides the tongue into the oral part (anterior 2/3) and oropharyngeal part (posterior 1/3)?

sulcus terminalis

547

What is the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

oral part

548

What is the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

oropharyngeal part

549

What is a foramen located at the apex of the V of sulcus terminalis?

foramen cecum

550

What is the remnant of the embryonic thyroglossal duct?

foramen cecum

551

What condition is found at the midline of the neck and occurs when the thyroglossal duct does not obliterate?

thyroglossal cyst

552

What is a shallow groove visible on the surface of the tongue?

median groove/sulcus

553

What are the 4 lingual papillae?

filiform papillae, fungiform papillae, vallate papillae, and foliate papillae

554

What lingual papillae allows us to grip food and is the reason for the "sandpaper" feeling of a cats tongue?

filiform papillae

555

What lingual papillae are conical projections with sharply pointed tips?

filiform papillae

556

What lingual papillae do not contain taste buds and have general sensory receptors only?

filiform papillae

557

What lingual papillae are mushroom shaped, and contain taste buds?

fungiform papillae

558

What lingual papillae do not contain taste buds and have general sensory receptors only?

filiform papillae

559

What lingual papillae are mushroom shaped, and contain taste buds?

fungiform papillae

560

What lingual papillae are the largest of the lingual papillae, arrange in a V shaped row in front of the sulcus terminalis, and contain taste buds?

vallate papillae

561

What part of the dorsum of the tongue faces posteriorly?

oropharyngeal part

562

What is a mass of lymphoid tissue found on the oropharyngeal surface of the tongue?

lingual tonsils

563

Do the lingual tonsils get more problems than the palatine tonsils?

no

564

Do the palatine tonsils get more problems than the lingual tonsils?

yes

565

What are the 2 folds that connect the tongue to the epiglottis?

median glossoepiglottic fold and lateral glossoepiglottic fold

566

What is the space on either side of the median glossoepiglottic fold?

vallecula

567

What is connected to the floor of the mouth by the frenulum of the tongue?

inferior surface of the tongue

568

What condition occurs in some infants, where the frenulum of the tongue is short superior to inferior and long anterior to posterior, extending to near the apex of the tongue?

ankloglossia

569

What condition is where the tongue is strapped to the floor of the mouth, impeding speech?

ankloglossia

570

Why is ankloglossia not as much of an issue after infancy?

the frenulum usually grows during the 1st year of life

571

What part of the tongue is anchored to the floor of the oral cavity?

root of the tongue

572

Where do nerves, vessels, and extrinsic muscles enter or leave the tongue through?

through the root

573

What are the 4 extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, and palatoglossus

574

What type of tongue muscles (extrinsic or intrinsic) originate somewhere and insert of the tongue?

extrinsic muscles

575

What type of tongue muscles (extrinsic or intrinsic) originate and insert within the tongue?

intrinsic muscles

576

What type of tongue muscles (extrinsic or intrinsic) are all innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)?

intrinsic muscles

577

What type of tongue muscles (extrinsic or intrinsic) change the shape of the tongue?

intrinsic muscles

578

What is the origin of the palatoglossus?

soft palate

579

What is the insertion of the palatoglossus?

sides of the tongue

580

What is the nerve supply to the palatoglossus?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

581

What is the function of the palatoglossus?

elevates back of tongue

582

Are all of the extrinsic muscles innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)?

no, all but palatoglossus (vagus nerve CN X) are

583

What extrinsic muscle of the tongue pulls the tongue forward?

genioglossus

584

What extrinsic muscle of the tongue prevents it from falling backwards, blocking the airway and potentially leading to suffocation?

genioglossus

585

When is the function of the genioglossus muscle particularly important?

during general anesthesia and in seizure disorders

586

What is the general sensation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue innervated by?

through the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V)

587

What is the taste sensation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue innervated by?

through the chorda tympani, a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII)

588

What is the general sensation and taste of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue innervated by?

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), a few taste buds on epiglottis sensed through the vagus nerve (CN X)

589

What nerve is involved with initiation of gag reflex because its fibers from vallate papillae cross the sulcus terminalis?

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

590

What is the arterial blood supply to the tongue?

lingual artery (from external carotid)

591

What is the veinal blood supply from the tongue?

lingual vein (to internal jugular)

592

What lymph nodes are associated with the tongue?

deep cervical nodes

593

What is the function of the teeth?

to break down food material during mastication, in order to increase its surface area to facilitate enzymatic activity and absorption

594

What are the 4 structures of the teeth?

enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum

595

What structure of the teeth is the hardest substance in the human body and covers the crown?

enamel

596

What structure of the teeth is internal to the enamel?

dentin

597

What structure of the teeth fills the central cavity of the tooth and contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics, which enter it through a foramen at the apex of the root?

pulp

598

What structure of the teeth is a bone-like substance which covers the root, and part of the periodontium (attachment system for teeth)?

cementum

599

What are the 3 parts of the teeth?

crown, neck, and root

600

What part of the teeth projects above the gingivae (gums) and is covered by enamel?

crown

601

What part of the teeth is the junction between the crown and root?

neck

602

What part of the teeth is embedded in the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible, and is covered with cementum?

root

603

What are specialized oral mucosa which surrounds the teeth and covers adjacent alveolar bone?

gingivae (gums)

604

What lingual papillae senses bitter taste and can trigger gag reflex as a survival mechanism?

vallate papillae

605

What lingual papillae are grooves and ridges along the margin of the tongue, poorly developed in humans and contains sour taste buds?

foliate papillae

606

What type of teeth are single rooted chisel-shaped teeth which are used for cutting?

incisors

607

What type of teeth are single rooted, pointed teeth which are used for puncturing and tearing?

canines

608

What type of teeth are single or double rooted teeth with broad chewing surfaces which are used for grinding?

premolars

609

What type of teeth are multiple rooted teeth with very broad chewing surfaces which are used for grinding?

molars

610

Why are the 3rd molars called wisdom teeth?

they erupt around 17-21 years of age when one is supposed to have gained "wisdom"

611

Why do wisdom teeth often become impacted?

due to dental crowding which is a modern problem due to a softer diet (we're a bunch of weak toothed pansies now, and personally I blame rap music)

612

What surface of teeth is side facing the lip or buccal surface in incisors and canines only; and side facing the cheek in premolars and molars only?

labial surface

613

What surface of teeth is the side facing the tongue?

lingual surface

614

What surface of teeth is the side facing anteriorly or toward the midline?

mesial surface

615

What surface of teeth is the side facing posteriorly or away from the midline?

distal surface

616

What surface of teeth is the chewing surface?

occlusal surface

617

What are the 2 sets of teeth?

deciduous (baby) teeth and permanent (adult) teeth

618

Which set of teeth are larger, whiter, sturdier, and have thicker enamel than the deciduous teeth?

permanent teeth

619

Which set of teeth have 2 incisors, 1 canine, and 2 molars in each quadrants for a total of 20?

deciduous teeth

620

Which set of teeth have 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars in each quadrant, for a total of 32?

permanent teeth

621

Which teeth are innervated by superior alveolar branches from the maxillary division of the trigeminal (CN V)?

maxillary teeth

622

Which teeth are innervated by inferior alveolar nerve from the mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V)?

mandibular teeth

623

What is the difference neurologically between a tooth ache and trigeminal neuralgia?

tooth ache affects 1 tooth, whereas trigeminal neuralgia affects the whole row

624

What is the common pathway for food and air?

pharynx

625

What conducts food to the esophagus and air to the larynx and is considered to be part of both the digestive and respiratory systems?

pharynx

626

What is a funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube which extends from the base of the skull to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage?

pharynx

627

What lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx?

pharynx

628

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

629

What part of the pharynx is posterior to the nasal cavity?

nasopharynx

630

What part of the pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity?

oropharynx

631

What part of the pharynx is posterior to the larynx?

laryngopharynx

632

What vertebra level does the nasopharynx lie at?

CV1

633

What part of the pharynx communicates with the nasal cavity through the choanae and with the oropharynx through the pharyngeal isthmus?

nasopharynx

634

What part of the nasopharynx is closed during swallowing?

pharyngeal isthmus

635

What are the 4 boundaries of the nasopharynx?

superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior

636

What is the superior boundary of the nasopharynx?

roof of the pharynx

637

What is the inferior boundary of the nasopharynx?

soft palate

638

What is the anterior boundary of the nasopharynx?

posterior border of the inferior nasal concha

639

What is the posterior boundary of the nasopharynx?

posterior wall of the pharynx

640

What are embedded in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx?

pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)

641

What are the 2nd most commonly removed tonsils?

pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)

642

What is the clinical significance of the pharyngeal tonsil?

may become enlarged, causing difficulty breathing through the nose

643

What opens into the lateral wall of the nasopharynx and is limited above by a cartilaginous structure called the torus tubarius (tubal elevation)?

pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

644

What connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear (tympanic cavity)?

pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

645

What equalizes pressure between the nasopharynx and the tympanic cavity?

pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

646

What is a small tonsil which lies immediately behind the opening of the pharyngotympanic tube and embedded in the torus levatorious?

tubal tonsil

647

What is a fold which descends from the torus tubarius to the wall of the pharynx?

salpingopharyngeal fold

648

What is deep to the salpingopharyngeal fold within the wall of the pharynx?

salpingopharyngeus muscle

649

What vertebral level does the oropharynx lie at?

C2-3

650

What are the 4 boundaries of the oropharynx?

superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior

651

What is the superior boundary of the oropharynx?

soft palate

652

What is the inferior boundary of the oropharynx?

superior border of the epiglottis

653

What is the anterior boundary of the oropharynx?

palatoglossal fold

654

What is the posterior boundary of the oropharynx?

posterior wall of the pharynx

655

What communicates with the oral cavity through the oropharyngeal isthmus (isthmus of fauces), which is bounded by the palatoglossal folds?

oropharynx

656

How does the oropharynx communicate with the oral cavity?

oropharyngeal isthmus (isthmus of fauces)

657

What tonsils are found in the oropharynx?

palatine tonsils

658

What are the 2 folds located in the oropharynx?

palatoglossal fold and palatopharyngeal fold

659

What fold of the oropharynx goes from the soft palate to the tongue, and deep to the fold is the palatoglossus?

palatoglossal fold

660

What fold of the oropharynx goes from the soft palate to the wall of the pharynx, and deep to the fold is the palatopharyngeus muscle?

palatopharyngeal fold

661

What is the space between the palatoglossal fold and palatopharyngeal fold?

tonsillar fossa

662

What are the most frequently removed tonsils during childhood?

palatine tonsils

663

What is the circular arrangement of tonsils around the oropharynx formed by the lingual, palatine, tubal, and pharyngeal tonsils?

tonsillar ring

664

What is the 1st line of defense against infection through the mouth?

tonsillar ring

665

What are the 4 boundaries (superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior) of the laryngopharynx?

superior boundary: superior border of the epiglottis
inferior boundary: lower border of the cricoid cartilage where it joins the esophagus
anterior boundary: the posterior surface of the larynx
posterior boundary: the posterior wall of the pharynx

666

What is the superior boundary of the laryngopharynx?

superior border of the epiglottis

667

What is the inferior boundary of the laryngopharynx?

lower border of the cricoid cartilage where it joins the esophagus

668

What is the anterior boundary of the laryngopharynx?

posterior surface of the larynx

669

What is the posterior boundary of the laryngopharynx?

posterior wall of the pharynx

670

What is the opening into the larynx and is found within the laryngopharynx?

laryngeal inlet

671

What is bounded laterally by the areyepiglottic folds and inferiorly by the interarytenoid notch?

laryngeal inlet

672

What is a recess in the anterior wall of the laryngopharynx, located on either side of the laryngeal inlet?

piriform fossa (recess)

673

What creates a channel for passage of food around the laryngeal inlet?

piriform fossa (recess)

674

What is a common condition that individuals with deep piriform fossa (recess) have?

halitosis

675

What part of the laryngopharynx do foreign objects such as fish bones frequently become lodged in?

piriform fossa (recess)

676

What are the 2 layers of muscles of the pharynx?

external (circular) layer and longitudinal layer

677

What layer of muscles of the pharynx insert on the pharyngeal raphe?

external (circular) layer

678

What are the 3 muscles of the external (circular) layer of pharyngeal muscles?

inferior constrictor muscle, middle constrictor muscle, and superior constrictor muscle

679

What is the origin of the inferior constrictor muscle?

cricoid cartilage and thyroid cartilage

680

What is the insertion of the inferior constrictor muscle?

pharyngeal raphe

681

What is the nerve supply to the inferior constrictor muscle?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus and external laryngeal nerve

682

What is the function of the inferior constrictor muscle?

contracts the pharynx during swallowing

683

What is the origin of the middle constrictor muscle?

greater and lesser horns of the hyoid bone

684

What is the insertion of the middle constrictor muscle?

pharyngeal raphe

685

What is the nerve supply to the middle constrictor muscle?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

686

What is the origin of the superior constrictor muscle?

medial pterygoid plate, alveolar part of mandible, and side of tongue

687

What is the insertion of the superior constrictor muscle?

pharyngeal raphe

688

What is the nerve supply to the superior constrictor muscle?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

689

What is the function of the superior constrictor muscle?

contracts the pharynx during swallowing

690

What is specialized band of muscle formed by the superior constrictor which helps to seal the pharyngeal isthmus during swallowing?

palatopharyngeal sphincter

691

What are the 3 muscles of the longitudinal layer of pharyngeal muscles?

stylopharyngeus muscle, palatopharyngeus muscle, and salpingopharyngeus muscle

692

What is the origin of the stylopharyngeus muscle?

styloid process

693

What is the insertion of the stylopharyngeus muscle?

thyroid cartilage, some fibers blend with those of the constrictors

694

What is the nerve supply to the stylopharyngeus muscle?

glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

695

What is the function of the stylopharyngeus muscle?

elevates pharynx

696

What 2 muscles work together to open the pharyngotympanic tube?

salpingopharyngeus and tensor veli palatini

697

What is the origin of the palatopharyngeus muscle?

soft palate

698

What is the insertion of the palatopharyngeus muscle?

wall of the pharynx, thyroid cartilage

699

What is the nerve supply to the palatopharyngeus muscle?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

700

What is the function of the palatopharyngeus muscle?

elevates pharynx, narrows oropharynx

701

What is the origin of the salpingopharyngeus muscle?

torus tubarius and opening of pharyngotympanic tube

702

What is the insertion of the salpingopharyngeus muscle?

wall of pharynx

703

What is the nerve supply to the salpingopharyngeus muscle?

vagus nerve (CN X) via the pharyngeal plexus

704

What is the function of the salpingopharyngeus muscle?

elevates the pharynx, opens pharyngotympanic tube

705

Which 2 muscles' fibers blend together within the wall of the pharynx?

palatophayngeus and salpingopharyngeus

706

What is a network of nerves which lies on the middle constrictor formed by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus (CN X), pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion?

pharyngeal plexus

707

Which branch of the pharyngeal plexus carries motor fibers which originate from the cranial part of the accessory nerve?

pharyngeal branch of the vagus (CN X)

708

Which branch of the pharnygeal plexus is motor to all of the muscles of the pharynx except the stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharngeal nerve (CN IX)?

pharyngeal branch of the vagus

709

All of the muscles of the pharynx are innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus (CN X) except for what muscle, and what is it innervated by?

stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

710

What branch of the phayrngeal plexus is sensory to the mucosa of the pharynx?

pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal (CN IX)

711

What are the 2 arteries of the pharynx?

ascending pharyngeal artery and maxillary artery

712

What is a layer of fascia which surrounds the pharynx external to the muscles of the pharynx, and is continuous with the pretracheal fascia below?

buccopharyngeal fascia

713

What is a layer of fascia which lies internal to the muscles and external to the mucosa of the pharynx?

pharyngobasilar fascia

714

What is a potential space between the buccopharyngeal fascia (or pretracheal fascia) and the prevertebral fascia, and it extends downward into the thorax and permits free movement of the pharynx and esophagus during swallowing?

retropharyngeal space

715

What injury may cause the posterior wall of the pharynx to balloon forward, potentially leading to suffocation?

hemorrhage from cervical trauma or abscess from pharyngeal infection into the retropharyngeal space

716

What must you look for, in radiology, in patients with cervical trauma or pharyngeal abscess?

widening of the retropharyngeal space

717

What is a complex neuromuscular act which occurs in 4 stages?

swallowing (deglutition)

718

During the 1st stage of swallowing (deglutition), the ______ moves the bolus (food mass) back into the _____________ _______.

tongue; oropharyngeal isthmus

719

During the 2nd stage of swallowing (deglutition), the ____________ and ______________ muscles squeeze the bolus back into the _______. At the same time, the _______ ____ _______ and _______ ____ _______ muscles elevate the soft palate to close off the ________ ______.

palatoglossus; palatopharyngeus; oropharynx; levator veli palatini; tensor veli palatini; pharyngeal isthmus

720

What condition is a difficulty swallowing?

dysphagia

721

During the 4th stage of swallowing (deglutition), ______________, ______________, and ______________ elevate the walls of the pharynx. At the same time, the __________ muscles elevate the hyoid bone and the larynx under the bulge of the tongue, which flexes the epiglottis back over the _________ ______.

stylopharyngeus; palatopharyngeus; salpingopharyngeus; suprahyoid; laryngeal inlet

722

During the 5th stage of swallowing (deglutition), the ________, ________, and ________ ________ muscles contract in sequence, to move the food through the ________ and ________ and into the esophagus. ________ then propels it downward to the stomach.

superior; middle; inferior constrictor; oropharynx; laryngopharynx; peristalsis