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Flashcards in Exam #1 Deck (196)
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1

Urogenital anatomy begins to develop at the _____ developmental week. Development begins with formation of the ________ _______.

4th
Urogenital ridge

2

The urogenital ridge contains a _________ region, a ________ region, and a ________ region.

Pronephric region
Mesonephric region
Metanephric region

3

The pronephros forms at ____ weeks. It functions, very minimally, as the ________. It differentiates into one long _________ on each side.

3
Kidney
Nephron

4

By ___ to ____ weeks, the embryo needs more filtration. The pronephros begins to die by ________, as the _________ takes over.

4-4.5 weeks
Apoptosis
Mesonephros

5

The mesonephros develops from ________ to _________, and performs filtration from about ____ to _____ weeks gestation

Superior to inferior
4 to 10 weeks

6

Eventually the mesonephros is replaced by the ___________, which becomes the adult _________. This structure begins to form at week ____ of development and becomes functional around week _______.

Metanephros
Kidney
Week 5
Week 9-10

7

Gonads begin to form during week ____ and ______

5 and 6

8

The gonads develop from a thickening of the _________ ________, called the _______ _______.

Urogenital ridge
Gonadal Ridge

9

The gonads contain: (1) (2) and (3)

1. Coelomic epithelium (lining)
2. Inner mesenchyme (mesoderm)
3. Primordial germ cells

10

Early in the ____ week, the primordial germ cells migrate to the ________ ________, traveling along the bowel mesentery via _______ ________. By the end of week _____, the PGC become incorporated into the ______ ______ _____.

6th
Genital ridge
Amoeboid movement
Primary sex cords

11

Before ____ weeks (known as the _______ stage), both male and female genital ducts are present. The male duct system develops from the ____________ / ____________ ducts, and the female duct system develops from the ____________ / ____________ ducts.

10
Indifferent
Mesonephric / Wolffian
Paramesonephric / Mullerian

12

The mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts form the __________ genital structures. This process begins around the _____ month of gestation.

Internal
3rd month

13

The SR-Y region of the Y chromosome codes for a protein called ____________, which causes __________ ducts to differentiate into male genital structures, and _____________, which causes the __________ ducts to regress.

TDF (testis determining factor)
Wolffian/Mesonephric
MIS (mullerian inhibiting substance)
Mullerian/Paramesonephric

14

Without an SR-Y region, there is no ____________, therefore the _________ ducts regress and the gonads become __________, and since there is no ______________, the _________ ducts develop into female internal genitalia.

TDF (testis determining factor)
Wolffian
Ovaries
MIS (mullerian inhibiting substance)
Mullerian/Paramesonephric

15

The primary sex cords of testes (also known as the _________ ______), contain the ________ _____ _____. The cords contain two types of cells: 1. ____________ ("Nurse" cells for developing sperm) and 2. ___________ (developed from primordial germ cells)

Spermatic Cords
Primordial germ cells
1. Sertoli cells
2. Spermatoblasts

16

The spermatic cords canalize to form the ____________ _________, which are separated by mesenchyme to form the ________ ______ (cells of _________), which make testosterone.

Seminiferous tubules
Interstitial Cells
Cells of Leydig

17

In males, the sex cords become _________ ________, while in females, the sex cords become _________ _________.

Seminiferous tubules
Primordial follicles

18

What two substances do the fetal testes produce?

1. Androgens - stimulate the Wolffian ducts
2. MIS - suppress the Mullerian ducts

19

A __________ is a common opening shared by the digestive, reproductive, and the urinary tracts. Humans develop this in utero, but it becomes divided by week ____ of gestation

Cloaca
Week 7

20

In cloacal separation, the genital tubercle develops and elongates to form the ________. ________ folds then appear, and the cloacal membrane divides into two, creating a _______ _______ By week 7, separate urogenital and rectal openings have formed, called ________. The phallus elongates to form the ________, and the ________ swellings meet and form ________.

Phallus
Urogenital
Urorectal septum
Sinuses
Penis
Labioscrotal swellings
Scrotum

21

Incomplete fusion of the urethral folds. Typically more distal, though proximal variations can occur.

Hypospadias

22

The penis is homologous to the:

Clitoris

23

The phallic shaft is homologous to the:

Clitoral body

24

The foreskin is homologous to the:

Clitoral hood and labia minora

25

The phallic and scrotal raphe is homologous to the:

Vulval and labial openings

26

The scrotum is homologous to the:

Labial majora

27

The testicles descend to the level of internal inguinal ring at about which time point during gestation?

Seventh month

28

Scrotum Layers

Skin
Dartos muscle
External spermatic fascia
Cremaster muscle
Internal spermatic fascia
Tunica vaginalis
Testis

29

In ovarian development, first the _____ _____ increase in size. The ______ ______ ______ are incorporated into them. The cords break up, forming ________ ________ at _____ weeks. These follicles contain: (1) and (2). Active _______ of the __________, forms millions of ______ ______.

Sex cords
Primordial germ cells
Primordial follicles
16 weeks
1. Oogonium
2. Follicular cells (surround oogonium as layer)
Mitosis
Oogonium
Primordial follicles

30

No oogonia form __________ - all are formed prior to _______. Many oogonia ______ before birth.

Postnatally
Birth
Degenerate