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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (64)
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1

Testicular torsion can manifest as an absence or weakness of the ________ __________

Scrotal ligament

2

Prostate cancer is most commonly found in the __________ ____________ of the prostate

Peripheral zone

3

Tx of balanitis/posthitis

Lotrimin
+/- topical steroid
DM control
Hygiene

4

Tx for phimosis

Child: give topical steroid after 4 y/o
Circumcision for refractory
Adults: Nystatin +/- topical steroid

5

Most common etiology of urethritis

STI
Chlamydial most common
Also gonococcal

6

Tx for urethritis

Ceftriaxone/Cipro + Azithro/Doxy

7

Risk factors for erectile dysfunction

DM, HTN, CAD, HLD, smoking, surgery

8

Penile condylomas

Warts; HPV related; check the anus as well

9

Causes of primary hypogonadism

Testicular failure
Mumps orchitis

10

Causes of secondary hypogonadism

Age-related (ADAM)
Chronic opiates

11

What diagnostic study is appropriate if testosterone levels are found to be < 100 ng/dL?

DEXA Scan

12

What testosterone level is defined as hypogonadism?

150-200 ng/dL

13

Risks associated with exogenous testosterone treatment

Infertility
Prostate CA
CV Events

14

Follow up/monitoring after starting a patient on exogenous testosterone

PSA; H and H; testosterone; urinary ROS; DRE
3, 6, 12 mo after initiating tx, then annually thereafter

15

Tx for cryptorchidism

Hormonal manipulation (GnRH injections)

16

The testis are actually absent in ____% of cryptorchidism cases

20%

17

Risk factors for cryptorchidism

Twins, low birth weight, preterm delivery, fam hx, prune belly syndrome

18

Complications of cryptorchidism

CA risk (even in contralateral)
Decreased fertility
Torsion risk is 10x higher

19

Negative cremaster sign, negative Prehn's sign

Testicular torsion

20

Positive Prehn's sign

Epididymitis

21

Most common etiologies of epididymitis

< 35 y/o = chlamydia, gonorrhea
> 35 y/o = E. coli

22

Most common etiology of orchitis

Viral mumps in children

23

_________ __________ (stratified epithelium) comprises 30% of the prostate

Glandular tissue

24

70% of prostate adenocarcinomas arise from the _________ ________

Peripheral zone

25

Tx for BPH

Non-selective alpha blockers (-zosin)
Selective alpha blockers (-dosin, -losin)
5-alpha reductase inhibitors (-steride)
Antimuscarinics (oxybutynin)

26

Risk factors for BPH

UTI
Prostatitis
Neurologic disease (CVA/TIA, Parkinson's MS)
Dietary indiscretion (caffeine, alcohol)
DM
OSA (snoring)
Advanced cancer of the prostate (rare)

27

Enzyme that liquefies ejaculate
Allows sperm to swim freely

PSA (prostate specific antigen)

28

Etiologies of UTI

E. coli (80%)
Staph, Klebsiella, Proteus

29

Etiologies of pyelonephritis

E. coli
Proteus, pseudomonas, klebsiella

30

Treatment of pyelonephritis

IV ABX, good hydration, blood glucose monitoring