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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (61)
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1

Your top 3 differentials always?

Bacteria
Demodex
Dermatophyte

2

Onset age of atopy is typically?

young (6months- 3 years)

3

The pathogenesis of atopy is based on a skewed immune response; toward which cell type is the response skewed?

TH2 cells (overproduction of their pro-inflammatory cytokines)

4

What are the components of eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats? (5)

1) eosinophilic plaques
2) rodent/indolent ulcer
3) linear granuloma
4) plasma cell pododermatitis
5) miliary dermatitis

5

How is atopy diagnosed?

EXCLUSION!! (once everything else has been ruled out)

6

Gold standard treatment for atopy?

Immunotherapy

7

Gold standard/best test for identifying allergens to use with immunotherapy?

Intradermal skin testing

8

With intradermal skin testing, what 3 factors are used to grade the response?

Size
turgidity
erythema

9

Which types of allergens should not be mixed in the same vial and why?

Molds and pollens

Molds secrete an enzyme that degrades the pollen antigens into haptens, making them too small for the immune system to respond to

10

What 2 ways can essential fatty acids help treat atopy?

1) influence arachadonic acid pathway (reduced inflammation)
2) help restore abnormal lipid bilayer of skin

11

Most common flea spp. infecting cats and dogs?

Ctenocephalides felis

12

Which type(s) of hypersensitivity reaction(s) is/are involved with flea bite hypersensitivity?

Type 1 & Type 4

13

Which 3 skin lesions are suggestive of chronicity?

Lichenification
Hyperpigmentation
Alopecia

14

Which GENERAL types of flea control are toxic to cats?

Organophosphates
Permethrins

15

Many OTC cat flea medications contain which GENERAL type of flea control

Insect growth regulators (IGR)

16

Which type of hypersensitivities are involved with food allergy?

Types 1, 3, and 4

17

Only reliable method for Dx of food allergy?

Food elimination trial

18

An important first step before applying any meds to treat sarcoptes

bathe with keratolytic shampp (removes crusts/scaling to allow meds to better penetrate)

19

Ivermectin should never be given to any dog already receiving.....

Spinosad

20

Avoid products containing _____ when treating for Notoedres

Permethrins!

21

Do Cheyletiella mites burrow into the skin?

No; surface feeders

22

What are the two types of lice?

Anoplura--sucking
Mallophaga--chewing/biting

23

Name the general categorical breakdown of nodular dermatitis etiologies

Either inflammatory or non-inflammatory

Inflammatory is either infectious or sterile

Non-inflammatory= neoplastic

Infectious= bacterial, fungal/oomyces, parasitic

24

Most common bacterial cause of nodular dermatitis?

Staphylococcus spp. (pseudintermedius)

25

If you biopsy a lesion and find a Gram +, weakly acid-fast bacilli and NO sulfur granules...that's consistent with?

Nocardia spp.

26

An acid-fast, G+ rod that is commonly associated with the caudal abdominal fat in cats is.....

Mycobacteria

27

Mycobacteria is commonly associated with which type of inflammation?

pyogranulomatous

28

A G+, non acid-fast rod that's commensal to oral cavity, URT, and bowel?

Actinomyces

**produces sulfur granules

29

Which bacteria is the most common cause of abscess in large animals?

Corynebacterium (C. pseudotuberculosis)

30

Match the description to the fungus:
1) Broad-based budding, large yeast
2) Narrow-based budding large yeast with a thick capsule
3) tiny, intracellular (inside macrophages), shrunk yeast with a halo
4) encapsulated endospores

1) Blastomycosis

2) Cryptococcosis

3) Histoplasmosis

4) Coccidiomycosis

31

The infectious stage of the fungal oomyces?

Flagellated zoospore

**attracted to elevated CO2 levels at wounds

32

Which fungal oomyce likes to spread to the great vessels?

Lagenidium

33

The most common type of nodule in horses?

Eosinophilic granuloma

34

Food allergy in cats commonly presents with lesions in which location?

area btwn ear and lateral cathus of eye

35

Most common cause of eosinophilic reactions in cats?

Ectoparasites

36

If a cat presents with crusted papules, what should you always check for?

Ringworm (do DTM)

37

If a cat has developed eosinophlic plaques secondary to whatever allergic condition, which treatment modality will be ineffective?

Antihistamines

38

What two things do we think about when a cat presents with plasma cell pododermatitis?

1) contact dermatitis (try switching litters)

2) mosquito hypersensitivity (they like to feed on paw pads)

39

Name the 4 factors predisposing to otitis

1) poor conformation
2) maceration
3) over medication (treatment)
4) obstruction

40

Most common primary cause of otitis?

Top differentials when it's a recurring problem?

Hypersensitivity (allergy)

Atopy and food allergy

41

Name 3 perpetuating factors for otitis

Bacteria
Yeast
Otitis media (progressive infections--think cats)

42

When would C&S be indicated for otitis?

When it's otitis media because you will need to use systemic antibiotics

43

What two things should NEVER be used to clean the ears

Chlorhexidine
Iodine (cats)

44

Concerning aminoglycosides and Fluorinate quinolones in treating otitis:
1) what spectrum do they each cover
2) are either ototoxic
3) how do exudates impact them

1) both cover G+ cocci and G- rods

2) Aminoglycosides are ototoxic

3) Aminoglycosides WILL breakdown in exudates but the FQs will not

45

3 effects corticosteroids can have when treating otitis

decrease inflammation
decrease pruritus
lower sebum production

46

4 indications for ear canal surgery

Calcified ear (mineralized)
neoplasia
stenosis
proliferative (hyperplastic pinna)

47

Top 3 causes of pruritus in horses

Atopy
Food allregy
Insect hypersensitivity

48

Best treatment option for atop in horses? two other options?

Best= hyposensitization shots

can also use prednisolone and hydroxyzine

49

Most common allergy you see in horses?

Culicoides hypersensitivity

50

What are your top 3 treatment options for Culicoides?

1) late afternoon fly spray (the feed in evening)

2) stable at night with fans blowing (bad fliers)

3) remove sources of stagnant water (where they breed)

51

List the 3 common causes of urticaria in horses

Drugs (vaccines, meds)

Allergy (insect, atopy, food)

Physical trauma, cold, or heat

52

Two benefits of colloidal oatmeal for pruritus?

Anti-inflammatory
Humectant (moisturizer--can help increase pruritic threshold)

53

Name 2 aloe vera extracts and their MOAs

1) Salicylic acid--inhibits prostaglandin production

2) Magnesium lactate--inhibits conversion of histidine to histamine in mast cells

54

The anti-inflammatory dose for glucocorticoids in dogs?

0.5-1 mg/kg/day

55

How does the anti-inflammatory dose of glucocorticoids differ in cats and why? What is it?

It's higher than in dogs bc cats have fewer glucocorticoid receptors

1-2 mg/kg/day

56

Atopica (Cyclosporin) MOA

calcineurin inhibitor--inhibits T-lymphocyte production, thus lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines

57

Apoquel (Oclacitinib) MOA?

JAK-1 inhibitor--prevents prodcution of IL-31 (a pruritogenic cytokine)

58

A contraindication for Protopic & Elidel?

ulcerative lesions

59

3 common causes of headshaking that can predispose to aural hematomas

otitis externa
atopy
food allergy

60

Bite wound abscesses should be lavaged with?

dilute betadine

61

The breed most commonly associated with perianal fistulas and the main form of treatment?

GSD

immunosuppressive medication (pred or cyclosporine)