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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (67)
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1

Two important things to remember when collecting histopath samples to check for autoimmune disease

1) treat any secondary infections first (yeast or bacteria)

2) d/c steroid therapy 2 weeks prior to sample collection

2

When treating a dog with autoimmune disease, what very important life-style change must be relayed to the owner?

Minimize the animal's exposure to sunlight--UV light will exacerbate disease

3

3 phases of treating autoimmune disease?

During which phase are side effects most likely?

induction
transition
maintenance

Side effects during induction due to high dose

4

What is the induction dose for prednisone/prednisolone & Methylpred in:
1) dogs
2) cats

1) 2.2-4.4 mg/kg/day

2) 4.4-6.6 mg/kg/day

5

Why do cats generally require a high steroid induction dose than dogs?

they possess fewer glucocorticoid receptors

6

Which two drugs used for treating autoimmune disease are calcineurin inhibitors

Cyclosporine & Tacrolimus

7

Concerning T-cell inhbiting drugs used to treat autoimmune disease:
1) which one is contraindicated in cats?
2) what are the 2 most common side effects
3) which drug has potent inhibitory effects on CP450?

1) Azathioprine

2) bone marrow suppression & GI upset

3) Cyclosporine

8

Name 2 alkylating agents used to treat autoimmune diseases.

Which is preferred for cats?

Which is reserved for refractory cases of pemphigus?

Chlorambucil & Cyclophosphamide

Cats--> Chlorambucil

refractory--> Cyclophosphamide

9

Which autoimmune disease is common in Collies and Shelties and primarily localizes to the nose where it causes a loss of cobblestone texture?

Name one unique feature of this autoimmune disease

Discoid lupus erythematous

Doesn't not cause systemic signs!!!!

10

Though you can't know by looking at them, under which circumstances would it be safe to assume infection is present in a hot spot?

most likely infected when present on the face of dogs with dense hair coats


**hot spot= acute superficial moist dermatitis

11

A 12 week old puppy presents to you with large pustules; cytology reveals bacteria? What is your most likely diagnosis and how will you treat?

Superficial pustular pyoderma (Puppy pyoderma)

topical shampoo--chlorohexidine based usually sufficient

12

Most common cause for recurrent superficial pyoderma?

Most important bacteria?

Atopy

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

13

When treating superficial pyoderma, for how long do we typically treat and what medication should you try to avoid?

3 week minimum

avoid steroids if possible

14

What category of antibiotics (and which specific drug) are top choice for bacterial skin infections?

1st generation cephalosporins---> CEPHALEXIN

15

If a dog has recurrent pyoderma but NO pruritus, what 4 things/differentials should you consider?

demodex
endocrine disease
steroids?
immune system problem


**if on steroids, may be masking the pruritus

16

What diagnostics are always necessary when diagnosing pododermatitis?

What is the most common etiology?

biopsy and culture


Allergy

17

Treatment of choice for Malassezia

Ketoconazole

18

What topical medication is a good choice for localized demodex?

Rotenone (Goodwinol)

19

For which type/form of demodex do we recommend removal from the breeding population?

Generalized demodex

20

Which 2 medications are contraindicated for tx of generalized demodex?

Steroids & Oclacitinib (Apoquel)

21

Which spp. of demodex causes pruritus and in which spp.? What is different abou the way it's diagnosed?

Demodex gatoi; CATS

SURFACE mite--> superfifical skin scrape


22

Lime sulfur dip is only effective for which spp. of demodex?

D. gatoi

**NO other spp!!

23

What criteria must be met to call demodex "cured"

2 negative skin scrapings 2 weeks apart

24

Which medication is the only licensed and approved drug for generalized demodex in dogs? Which spp. should it NEVER be used in?

Amitraz

NEVER to cats or horses

25

If you're concerned about ivermectin toxicity in a patient, what 3 clinical sings should you tell your clients to watch for?

hypersalivation
mydriasis
coma

26

T/F: All spp. of dermatophyte are zoonotic

True!

27

Most common spp. of dermatophyte?

Which spp. harbors it?

Microsporum canis

harbored in CATS--asymptomatic carriers

28

Two other important spp. of dermatophyte and 1 unique thing about each

1) Microsproum gypseum---> lives in environment (source)

2) Trichophyton mentagrophytes--> causes inflammation (rodents/varmits)

29

Why is ringworm infection typically self-limiting? And since it is, why do we treat at all?

Self-limiting because it only affects hairs in ANAGEN (growing)

treat to prevent spread and human infection

30

The only way to determine dermatophyte spp. is ______? What feature do you use to differentiate?

Fungal culture

look at macroconidia

31

The only oral anti-fungal licensed and approved to treat dermatophyte in dogs and cats?

One VERY important thing about it?

Griseofulvin

DO NOT give to FIV+ cats!!

32

Which other drug used for tx of dermatophyte cannot be given to cats?

Ketoconazole

33

Most common cause of crusting in large animals?

Dermatophilus congolensis

34

The reservoir for dermatophilus is?

asymptomatic carrier animals (contagious!!)

*zoonotic also

35

In horses, which bacterial spp. commonly causes folliculitis? What unique clinical sign can it cause?

S. aureus

Leukotrichia--hairs that fall out grow back white

36

The second most common cause of folliculitis in LA?

Dermatophyte

37

What is unique about large animal dermatophytes when culturing them?

they require B vitamins in growth media

38

Two most common bacterial diseases of pigs?

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (Z)

Staphylococcus hyicus

39

What disease is caused by S. hyicus in pigs? What is a unique feature of the bacteria?

Exudative Epidermitis (Greasy pig disease)

can penetrate INTACT skin

40

Parakeratosis indicates what?

the corneocytes have retained nuclei

41

Differentiate between keratolytic and keratoplastic

lytic= breaksdown adhesions between corneocytes

plastic= re-normalizes cornification (slows down cell turn over to prevent buildup)

42

Two anti-seborrheics often combined and used in shampoo therapy

sulfur & salicylic acid

43

A true primary cause of increased scale

Ichthyosis

**congenital and heritable**

44

When trying to diagnose sebaceous adenitis, it's important to specify to the pathologist that they should check for ________??

ABSENCE of sebaceous glands on histopath sample

45

This heritable, congenital disease of collies and shelties creates well-demarcated alopecic lesions that look like they are outlined by sharpie

Canine familial dermatomyositis

46

Treatment of choice for dermatomyositis? MOA?

Pentoxifylline

makes RBCs ameboid--improves perfusion and oxygenation to lesion sites

47

A young puppy (8 weeks) presents for alopecia. On PE you note enlarged ln and a fever... you tentatively diagnose? Tx?

Juvenile cellulitis

tx is HIGH dose steroids and cephalexin (even if no active infection bc you are immunosuppressing a puppy)

48

What is diascopy and what are 3 differentials for if it's absent?

blanching of the skin when pressure is applied

Consider:
vasculitis, cutaneous lymphoma, and hemorrhage

49

Most common cause of erythema multiforme? How does this impact treatment choices?

most commonly due to adverse drug reaction

Treat with as FEW drugs as possible!

50

Dogs with color dilute alopecia are prone to developing which problem?

Folliculitis (sterile)

51

Which product/ingredient is preferred for unplugging/cleaning out hair follicles

benzoyl peroxide

52

Alopecia caused by endocrinopathies affect hairs in which stage?

TELOGEN

53

Which endocrinopathy is pruritic?

hyperestrogenism

54

Which breed commonly gets alopecia X?

Pomeranians

*lose hair and skin hyperpigmented; hair grows back soft, fuzzy (wool-like)

55

Onchocera in horses is best diagnosed using?

minced tissue culture

*can see microfilaria and make immediate diagnosis

56

When treating onchocerca, why are steroids typically used?

the dead larva can exacerbate the inflammation and make the hypersensitivity worse

57

This relatively benign disease of cattle is transmitted via flies and typically affects the ventrum

Stephanofilariasis

*causes leukoderma

58

Feathered fetlocks and intense pruritus in a draft horse would be indicative of?

Chorioptes

59

Concerning Chorioptes, during which season is it worst?

Reportable in ______?

Winter

Sheep

60

Which spp. of Psoroptes is assoc. with otitis?

P. cuniculi

61

Causes a crusting, honeycomb lesion on non-feathered skin of birds--on eyes, beaks, and/or legs

Knemidokoptes

62

Pododermatitis in birds typically affects which area of the foot?

plantar aspect--Metatarsal pad

63

Pododermatitis is typically caused by _______?

improper husbandry

64

Presence of _____ on histopath would be indicative of avian pox

Bollinger bodies

65

What is dysecdysis?

a difficulty in sloughing or abnormal sloughing of scales

66

Hepatocutaneous syndrome is assoc. with a decrease in?

amino acids

67

Concerning hepatocutaneous syndrome:
1) which area of the body is commonly involved
2) a characteristic u/s finding
3) describe histopath appearance

1) footpads

2) honeycomb liver

3) red, white, and blue histopath (parakeratosis, edema, inflammatory cells)