Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (27)
What are you considerations when creating a fluid plan? (5)
What is the maintenance fluid rate for an adult horse?
For a foal?
Foals= 80-120ml/kg/day (higher if younger)
What must you remember to do if you choose to administer hypertonic saline to a horse?
Follow it with a large volume of isotonic crystalloids
The hypertonic saline dehydrates the tissues to expand the vascular compartment
T/F: When giving enteral fluid therapy to a horse, you should regularly monitor for the development of diarrhea as it is an early indicator of over-hydration
A potassium level above ____ would indicate a need to treat for hyperkalemia.
What would be a good isotonic crystalloid to choose for a hyperkalemic horse?
Saline (0.9% NaCl)
Which isotonic crystalloid would NOT be an appropriate choice for a horse with hypercalcemia
GENERALLY speaking, what 3 things can cause colic if they occur in the GI tract?
Name the normal UPPER limit for these vital parameters:
1) temperature (adult and foal)
2) heart rate (adult and foal)
3) resp rate (adult and foal)
1) A= 101, F= 102.5
2) A=44bpm F= 100/120bpm
3) A= 24 F= 40-60
What 5 things/findings will help determine if your colic case should be medically or surgically managed?
3) Transrectal palpation
4) NG intubation
5) PE & clinpath info
A good neonatal exam should start with?
Examination/history of the MARE
What are the main activities you would expect to see a foal doing if healthy?
sleeping, eating, playing, peeing, sleeping....(repeat)
A typical foal exam should occur how soon after birth?
**earlier if foal is sick and/or not meeting milestones
What are the contents of the umbilicus?
2 arteries, 1 vein, urachus
Which cranial nerve response is not present in newborn foals?
*takes 2-3 weeks to develop
Best test for assessing passive transfer in foals? When should it be done?
SNAP Foal IgG
*After 12hr but before 24hr (ideally around 16hr)
--foal needs time to absorb antibodies but you don't want to wait too long bc risk of septicemia increases the longer you wait
The primary risk factor for development of neonatal septicemia
What are the 3 portals of entry for foal septicemia?
1) gastrointestinal tract
3) resp tract
Definitive diagnosis of septicemia is done via?
Name the common isolates of septicemia
1) gram negs (5)
2) gram pos (3)
1) E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Actinobacillus, Enterobacter
2) Staph, Strep, Enterococcus
Describe how meconium staining is a risk factor for pneumonia
The meconium can be aspirated if passed in utero---it acts as a chemical irritant and impairs the foal's normal resp defense mechanisms--> secondary bacterial pneumonia
Rib fractures in foals typically occur at which location? What is the best modality to diagnose them?
Infection of the umbilical remnant is referred to as?
Primary clinical sign assoc with PAS
Which form of botulsim is most common in foals?
A definitive diagnosis of NI is made using? What does that mean?
Minor cross match--check mare's plasma (or colostrum) against foal's RBCs
What are the 5 steps in the protocol for delivering bad news to clients
2) assess client knowledge and preferences
3) share information (bad news)
4) attend to feelings
5) enlist client in follow-up and planning