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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (74):
1

inhibits vitamin K dependent clotting factors

warfarin

2

Effect on a reproductive cell prior to conception

Mutagenesis

3

Compare the usefulness of the following measures in poisoning: activated charcoal, gastric
lavage, cathartics, syrup of Ipecac

Gastric lavage = works best, Ipecac not used anymore (used to be for poisoning)

4

examples of breakdown of toxin to non-toxin

N-Acetylcysteine to accelerate the metabolism of Acetaminophen

5

- Sensitizing dose (Pre-exposure)
- Immunologically mediated
- Not associated with a dose response realtionship

Allergies

6

rapid response to a drug which diminishes effectiveness of successive doses
(CNS drugs m/c)

tachyphylaxis

7

First line therapy for PD and primary goal of that therapy.

Carbidopa and Levodopa (Potentiation) which slows progression

8

Mechanism of carbidopa

Blocks conversion of L-Dopa to DA in periphery

9

Review the phenomena of Succinylcholine apnea

Genetic mutation of succinylcholine esterase will prevent the metabolism of Succinylcholine --> post-anesthesia apnea

10

Single continuous seizure or recurrent seizures without regaining consciousness between seizures for over 30 minutes

Status Epilepticus

11

mutation

preconception

12

What are the primary neurotransmitters involved in movement and Parkinson’s disease?

Dopamine and Acetylcholine

13

Secondary PD therapies

- MAO inhibitors (stops DA degradation)
- DA agonists
- anticholinergics (anti-tremor)
- COMT inhibitors

14

Anti-cholinergic drugs side effects

dry mouth/eyes, urinary retention, constipation, dry eye, confusion, neuro side effects

15

occurs during fetal development

Teratogenesis

16

most common drugs used for initial therapy in adults is with Epilepsy.

Phenytoin (dilantin)

17

most effective treatment for anaphylaxis

Epinephrin (bronchodilation) --> anti-histamine --> steroids

18

Side effects of Phenytoin

, causes *Gingival Hyperplasia*

19

Side effects of Phenytoin

, causes *Gingival Hyperplasia*

20

MOA of activated charcoal

binds poisons and prevents absorption

21

majory side effect of L-dopa

tartive dyskinesias

22

majory side effect of L-dopa

tartive dyskinesias

23

Amantidine

Anti-parkinsons drug: antagonist of NMDA-type glutamate receptors, increases
dopamine release and blocks dopamine re-uptake

24

bromocryptine

Treats Parkinsons, DA agonist (potent D2 and weak D1)

25


Anti-parkinsons drug: antagonist of NMDA-type glutamate receptors, increases
dopamine release and blocks dopamine re-uptake

Amantidine

26


Treats Parkinsons, DA agonist (potent D2 and weak D1)

bromocryptineAdjunct therapy for pts that developed a tolerance to L-Dopa

27

used for L-Dopa tolerance

Selegiline

28

leads to decreases plasma concentration of 3-O-methyldopa,
increases uptake of levodopa and greater concentration of dopamine in the brain

Inhibition of COMT

29

MAO type B inhibitor and enhances levodopa activity

selegeline

30

Increase L-Dopa

L-dopa, larodopa, dopar

31

Block dopa decarboxylase

Carbidopa

32

Decreased ACh

Benztropine, trihexphenidyl

33

Dopamine agonists

Pergolide, bromocriptine, pramipexole, ropinirole

34

Block degredation of dopamine in the brain via MAO-B inhibition

Selegiline

35

Side effects of anti-muscarinic drugs?

Dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, blurred vision

36

Anti-muscarinic drug used in parkinsons, antagonizes acetylcholine to bring down levels of dopamine

benzotropine

37

Reduces tremors and drooling

benzotropine

38

Reduces tremors and drooling

benzotropine

39

best way to remove unknown substances from the body?

gastric lavage (stomach pumping)

40

induce vomiting by using

syrup of ipecac or apomorphine

41

Inhibits COX-2 platelet aggregation effects

Aspirin

42

warfarin-aspirin interaction type?

distribtution

43

what is used to accelerate the metabolism of Acetaminophen?

N-Acetylcysteine

44

example of where an antidote blocks formation of a toxic agent

Competitive inhibitor of P450 enzymes and
Ethanol inhibiting methanol convertion to formaldehyde

45

drugs that make you vomit?

cathartic

46

- More direct than allergies
- no immune mediator required
- Free radicals cause damage

Toxicity

47

rigid, tremors, Parkinson's

Dopa is low

48

flaccidity

Ach is low

49

a dopamine precursor

Levodopa

50

cofactor for conversion of levodopa to dopamine

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

51

Dopa agonist for mostly D2 receptors

Pergolide (Permax)

52

Potent D2 agonist and mild D1 antagonist (Used to treat prolactinomas)

Bromocriptine

53

Selectively bind to D2 and D3 receptors

amipexole and Ropinirole

54

Reduces damage to neurons

DA agonists

55

Anticholinergics

Benztropine and
Trihexyphenidyl

56

Inhibits peripheral dopamine decarboxylase activity

COMT inhibitors
Tolcapone and Entacapone

57

Very toxic to liver

COMT inhibitors

58

Reduce resting tremors and drooling symptoms

Anticholinergics

59

Pharmacologics that enhance DA impact in the brain

COMT inhibitors, DA agonists, MAO inhibitors

60

Short episodes of recurring muscle contractions lasting for several minutes

Myoclonic seizures

61

Most effective therapy for myoclonic seizures

Valproic acid (and clonazepam)

62

Inhibits sodium channels and increases GABAergic activity

Valproic acid

63

Occur between 3 months to 5 years and
results from high fever during illness

Febrile seizures

64

first treatment choice for Febrile seizures?

Phenobarbital

65

treatment for Status Epilepticus

- Benzodiazepines
- Phenytoin (Dilantin)
- Valium (Diazepam) and Lorazepam

66

Acute episode treatment for Status Epilepticus

Valium (Diazepam) and Lorazepam

67

Blocks sodium channels and decreases generation of abnormal discharges in the brain

Carbamazepine (Tegretol)

68

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is helpful for

partial seizures and tonic-clonic

69

Anti-seizure drugs that can harm the liver are

Tiagabine and
Valproic acid

70

- Gingival hyperplasia
- CNS depression→ Nystagmus and ataxia
- Megaloblastic anemia
- ADH inhibition
- Nausea, vomiting, confusion, hallucinations, drowsiness, hyperglycemia, glycosuria.

Side effects of Phenytoin

71

treatment for absence seizures

ethosuzimide

72

treatment for broad spectrum seizures

valproic acid

73

treatment for adjunct seizures

lamotrigine and gabapentin

74

for treatment of tonic clonic status epilepticus

lorazepam or diazepam