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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (65):
1

Characteristics of living things

Everything is made of cells, reproduction, evolution, information, energy (acquire and use)

2

Framework theories for biology

Cell theory- prexisting cells

Evolution theory- Darwin, diversity in life

Chromosome theory of inheritance- transmitted thru DNA and genes

3

Theory

Explanation for phenomena (why) supported by lrg body of evidence

4

Scientific method

Observations
Hypothesis formation
Prediction
Experimentation
Conclusion

5

Double blind

Participants and administering participant scientist doesn't know which is control/ placebo

6

Independent variable

One group gets the Med and one doesn't

7

Dependent variable

Responding variable

Should change in response to independent variable

Scientist doesn't control

8

Hypothesis is a...

Testable Statement not a question

9

Cell theory

Cells from prexisting cells and all living things made of cells

10

Louis Pasteur experiment

Cells from prexisting cells and not from spontaneous generation

11

Diversity of life is...

Change in population over time

12

Population

Group of individuals in the same place, same time, same area

13

Natural selection

A mechanism to explain evolution

14

Result of evolution by natural selection is

Only one mechanism that can result in evolution

15

Evolution via natural selection leads to...

A more adapted population

16

Selection favors...

Favor phenotype with the greatest fitness

17

Fitness is dependent on (relative to)

Environment

18

What drives natural selection?

Adaptation and fitness

19

Adaptation

A trait that increases fitness in a particular environment

20

Mechanisms of evolution

Selection
Mutation
Gene flow
Genetic drift
Non random mating

21

Genetic drift

Chance event takes out an entire group of the population

22

Gene flow

Migration/ immigration leads to better adapted phenotypes

23

Non random mating

Midgets breed with midgets or giraffes breeding with long neck giraffes

24

DNA, gene, chromosome connected how?

DNA on genes on chromosomes

25

Gene

Section of DNA that coded for a protein

26

Chromosome theory of inheritance questions

- what is the source of heritable variation in traits?
- how is info stored, transmitted from one generation to the next?

27

Central dogma describes...

Example...

Describes the flow of info in a cell

DNA codes for rna that code for proteins

28

Two fundamental nutritional needs of organisms...

Acquire chemical energy aka atp

Obtain molecules that can be used to make DNA, rna, protein, etc

29

Tree of life incorporates ________ theories

Cell, inheritance and evolution

30

The tree of life is...

A family tree of organisms that describes genealogical relationships slung species with a single ancestral species at the base

31

Tree of life shows that all species... and ....

Come from prexisting species

Can be traced to a single common ancestry

32

Phylogeny

Actual genealogical relationships among all organisms

(Helps determine who is most related genetically)

33

How are scientists able to organize species on a tree of of life?

Comparing DNA and rna

34

Two major groups of tree of life

Prokaryote and eukaryote

35

Eukaryotic (unlikely prokaryote) have/ are...

Membrane bound nucleus

More organized

Can do more complex tasks

Multiple things can happen at the same time

Usually larger

36

Two main groups of prokaryotes

Bacteria and archaea

37

Unicellular eukaryotes

Algae protist yeast

38

4 main chemical elements of living things

Carbon
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Oxygen

39

_
_ He


- what number is above and what number is below

- mass number above

-atomic number/ proton number

40

Isotopes that are unstable...

Can decay aka be radioactive that give off energy in the form of rays and subatomic particles this can be helpful or harmful

41

Oxygen period and group

Period: 2

Group 6

42

Solute/ solvent

Solvent is water

Solute is salt (solute toot)

43

Water is an efficient solvent because....

Hydrogen bonding

44

What happens when hydrophobic molecule is in water...

Hydrophobic molecules form a cage

45

Properties of water's structure...

Small
Bent
Polar covalent bonds
Overall polarity

46

Properties of water

Adhesion
Cohesion
Surface tension
Denser liquid than a solid
High specific heat (absorbs a lot of energy)
Good acid base reactant

47

High surface tension because of...

(Don't say h bond)

Cohesion

48

Cohesion

From h bonds

Binding between LIKE molecules

49

Adhesion

Waters ability to bind with unlike molecules

50

Water as a denser liquid allows for...

Sea life at bottom of ocean to stay alive

51

Specific heat is

Amount of heat need to raise temp of 1 gram of a substance

More energy needed to raise temp helps maintain homeostasis

52

Heat of vaporization

Energy required to change 1 gram of a substance from liquid to a gas

53

In acid base rxn water dissociates into

Hydrogen ions (as hydronium)

Hydroxide ions

54

Acids are

Substances that give up protons during chemical rxn and raise hydronium concentrations

55

Bases are

Are substances that acquire protons during a rxn and lower hydronium concentration

56

Ph measures

H+ concentration in a solution

57

Ph from 5 to 4

Ph from 10 to 8

10x more acidic aka 10x more hydrogen ions

100x more basic aka 100X less hydrogen ions

58

Blood ph leads to alkalosis or acidosis with how much ph change

-/+ .4

7.0-7.8

59

Buffers contain...

And help...

Acid-base pair that reversible (in a chemical reaction) combines with H+

Maintain homeostasis

60

Common buffer in humans

Carbonic acid (weak acid)

61

Organic compounds are...

Molecules that contain carbon bonded to other elements

(Carbon is most versatile element on earth because of single double trple bonds)

62

Amino groups attract ___ and act as ____

And look like...

Proton

Base


Nh2

63

Carboxyl groups ____ and act as a ___

And look like...

Drop a proton

Act as an acid

Cooh

64

Carbonyl groups....

What does it look like...

Have sites that link molecules into more complex compounds

C=o

65

Sulfuhydryl

S-h form kinks and bridges via disulfide bonds