Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (65):
Characteristics of living things
Everything is made of cells, reproduction, evolution, information, energy (acquire and use)
Framework theories for biology
Cell theory- prexisting cells
Evolution theory- Darwin, diversity in life
Chromosome theory of inheritance- transmitted thru DNA and genes
Explanation for phenomena (why) supported by lrg body of evidence
Participants and administering participant scientist doesn't know which is control/ placebo
One group gets the Med and one doesn't
Should change in response to independent variable
Scientist doesn't control
Hypothesis is a...
Testable Statement not a question
Cells from prexisting cells and all living things made of cells
Louis Pasteur experiment
Cells from prexisting cells and not from spontaneous generation
Diversity of life is...
Change in population over time
Group of individuals in the same place, same time, same area
A mechanism to explain evolution
Result of evolution by natural selection is
Only one mechanism that can result in evolution
Evolution via natural selection leads to...
A more adapted population
Favor phenotype with the greatest fitness
Fitness is dependent on (relative to)
What drives natural selection?
Adaptation and fitness
A trait that increases fitness in a particular environment
Mechanisms of evolution
Non random mating
Chance event takes out an entire group of the population
Migration/ immigration leads to better adapted phenotypes
Non random mating
Midgets breed with midgets or giraffes breeding with long neck giraffes
DNA, gene, chromosome connected how?
DNA on genes on chromosomes
Section of DNA that coded for a protein
Chromosome theory of inheritance questions
- what is the source of heritable variation in traits?
- how is info stored, transmitted from one generation to the next?
Central dogma describes...
Describes the flow of info in a cell
DNA codes for rna that code for proteins
Two fundamental nutritional needs of organisms...
Acquire chemical energy aka atp
Obtain molecules that can be used to make DNA, rna, protein, etc
Tree of life incorporates ________ theories
Cell, inheritance and evolution
The tree of life is...
A family tree of organisms that describes genealogical relationships slung species with a single ancestral species at the base
Tree of life shows that all species... and ....
Come from prexisting species
Can be traced to a single common ancestry
Actual genealogical relationships among all organisms
(Helps determine who is most related genetically)
How are scientists able to organize species on a tree of of life?
Comparing DNA and rna
Two major groups of tree of life
Prokaryote and eukaryote
Eukaryotic (unlikely prokaryote) have/ are...
Membrane bound nucleus
Can do more complex tasks
Multiple things can happen at the same time
Two main groups of prokaryotes
Bacteria and archaea
Algae protist yeast
4 main chemical elements of living things
- what number is above and what number is below
- mass number above
-atomic number/ proton number
Isotopes that are unstable...
Can decay aka be radioactive that give off energy in the form of rays and subatomic particles this can be helpful or harmful
Oxygen period and group
Solvent is water
Solute is salt (solute toot)
Water is an efficient solvent because....
What happens when hydrophobic molecule is in water...
Hydrophobic molecules form a cage
Properties of water's structure...
Polar covalent bonds
Properties of water
Denser liquid than a solid
High specific heat (absorbs a lot of energy)
Good acid base reactant
High surface tension because of...
(Don't say h bond)
From h bonds
Binding between LIKE molecules
Waters ability to bind with unlike molecules
Water as a denser liquid allows for...
Sea life at bottom of ocean to stay alive
Specific heat is
Amount of heat need to raise temp of 1 gram of a substance
More energy needed to raise temp helps maintain homeostasis
Heat of vaporization
Energy required to change 1 gram of a substance from liquid to a gas
In acid base rxn water dissociates into
Hydrogen ions (as hydronium)
Substances that give up protons during chemical rxn and raise hydronium concentrations
Are substances that acquire protons during a rxn and lower hydronium concentration
H+ concentration in a solution
Ph from 5 to 4
Ph from 10 to 8
10x more acidic aka 10x more hydrogen ions
100x more basic aka 100X less hydrogen ions
Blood ph leads to alkalosis or acidosis with how much ph change
Acid-base pair that reversible (in a chemical reaction) combines with H+
Common buffer in humans
Carbonic acid (weak acid)
Organic compounds are...
Molecules that contain carbon bonded to other elements
(Carbon is most versatile element on earth because of single double trple bonds)
Amino groups attract ___ and act as ____
And look like...
Carboxyl groups ____ and act as a ___
And look like...
Drop a proton
Act as an acid
What does it look like...
Have sites that link molecules into more complex compounds