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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (59):
1

Anthropology

The study of human nature, human society, and the human past

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Holism

Characteristic of Anthro perspective that describes how Anthro tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and activities

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Comparison

Characteristic of Anthro perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in a wide range of societies before making generalizations

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Evolution

Required anthropologists to place observations about human nature, society, and the past in temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time

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Culture

Set of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire

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Biocultural organisms

Defining features are codetermined by biological and cultural factors

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Material culture

Objects created or shaped by humans and given meaning through culture

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Races

Social grouping that allegedly reflect biological differences

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Racism

Systematic Oppression of a "race" by another "race" that is justified by supposed superiority

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Biological anthropology

Specialty of Anthro that looks at human beings as biological organisms and seeks to learn about differing characteristics

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Primatology

Study of nonhuman primates

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Paleoanthropology

The search for fossilized remains of humanities ancestors

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Cultural anthropology

Speciality of Anthro that shows variations in beliefs and behaviors of members that is shaped by culture

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Sex

Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, male and female

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Gender

The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex

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Fieldwork

Extended period of close involvement w/ people whose language or life anthropologists are interested. They collect data

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Informants

People who work w/ anthropologists and provide them insight

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Ethnography

Written or filmed description of particular culture

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Ethnology

Comparative study of two or more cultures

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Language

Vocal symbols used to encode experiences

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Linguistic anthropology

Speciality of Anthro concerned with study of language

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Archaeology

Analysis of material remains left by earlier societies

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Applied anthropology

Subfield of Anthro that uses info gather from other anthropological specialties

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Medical anthropology

Concerned w/ human health

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Socialization

How people living together cope with behavioral rules established by their societies

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Enculturation

People living in the same culture coming to terms with ways of thinking/feeling that is considered appropriate to their culture

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Symbol

Something that stands for something else

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Human agency

The excessive of at least some control over their lives by human beings

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Coevolution

Relationship between biological processes and symbolical cultural processes

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Ethnocentrism

Belief your way of living is better and correct

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Cultural relativism

Understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically and things have meaning

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Participant observation

Method anthropologists use by living as closely as possible to area of study

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Positivism

View that there is reality "out there" that can be known through the five senses and a single set of scientific methods for investigating reality

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Objective knowledge

Absolute and true knowledge of reality

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Intersubjective meanings

Shared, public symbolic systems of a culture

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Reflexivity

Critically thinking about the way one thinks. Reflecting

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Multisited fieldwork

Research not contained by social,ethnic, or national boundaries

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Dialect of fieldwork

Process of building bridge of understanding between anthropologist and informant

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Culture shock

Panic in unfamiliar society

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Capitalism

Supply-demand price mechanism

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Colonialism

Cultural domination with enforced social change

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Political economy

Holistic term emphasizing centrality of economy and politics to protect and enhance that interest

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Neocolonialism

Persistence of social/economical entanglements linking former colonial territories to formed rulers despite sovereignty

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Typology

Classification system based on forms of human society

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Uni lineal cultural evolutionism

19th century theory proposing series of stages all society must go through to reach civilization

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Social structure

Ensuring aspects of social forms in society, including its political and kinship systems

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Band

Characteristic firm of social organization found among foragers, usually 50 or fewer members

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Tribe

Larger than band, farm or herd for living, egalitarian

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Chiefdom

Social organization when a leader and his relatives are set apart from rest of society and given privileges

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State

Stratified society that has territory and defended from enemies with army and has police. Run by elite

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Structural functional theory

Position that explores how particular social forms function from day to day in order to reproduce the traditional structure of society

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Cultural traits

Particular features or parts of a cultural tradition, such as dance, a ritual, or style of pottery

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Cultural area

Limits of borrowing or the diffusion of particular cultural trait

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Species

Reproductive communi tutte of population that occupies specific niche in nature

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Phenotype

Observable, measurable outward characteristics of organisms

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Cline

Gradual intergradation of genetic variation from population to population

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Globalization

Reshaping of local conditions by powerful global forces

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Cyborg anthropology

Based on notion of organism-machine hybrids, that offers new model for challenging rigid social/political/economic boundaries that have been used to separate people by gender and sex/class proclaimed as natural

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Science studies

Explores interconnections among sociocultural, political, economic, and historic conditions that make scientific research possible