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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (47):
1

The study of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experience of the world

Language

2

The scientific study of language

Linguistics

3

Those characteristics of language that, when take. Together, differentiate it from other known animal communication systems

Design feature

4

A term coined by linguist Noam Chomsky to refer to the mastery of adult grammar

Linguistic competence

5

A term coined by anthropological linguist Dell Hymes to refer to the mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech

Communicative competence

6

A position, associated with Edward Sapir and Benjamin whorf, that assets that language has the power to shape the way people see the world

Linguistic relativity principle

7

A set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by members of a particular speech community

Grammar

8

The study of the sound of language

Phonology

9

In linguistics, the study of the minimal units of meaning in a language

Morphology

10

The study of meaning

Semantics

11

Study of language in the context of its use

Pragmatics

12

Stretch of speech longer than a sentence untied by a common theme

Discourse

13

Study of language use that relies on ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech is both constituted by and constitutive of social interaction

Ethnopragmatics

14

Language with no native speakers that develops a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages

Pidgin

15

A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say and how they say it

Language ideology

16

Attempts by linguists and activists to preserve or revive languages with a few native speakers that appear to be on the verge of extinction

Language revitalization

17

A framing that is 1. Consciously adopted by the players 2. Somehow pleasurable 3. Systematically related to what is no play by alluding to the no play world and by transforming the objects, roles, actions, relations of the ends and means characteristic of the nonplay world

Play

18

Communication about the process of communication itself

Metacommunication

19

A cognitive boundary that marks certain behaviors as "play" or "ordinary life"

Framing

20

Critically thinking about the way one thinks; reflecting on ones own experience

Reflexivity

21

A physical exercise activity that is aggressively competitive within constraints imposed by definition and rules. Sport is a component of culture that is ritually patterned and game like and consists of varying amounts of play, work, and leisure

Sport

22

Play with form producing some aesthetically successful transformation representation

Art

23

The process in which experience is transformed as it is represented symbolically in a different medium

Transformation-representation

24

The patterns of production, distribution, and consumption that members of a society employ to ensure the satisfaction of the basic material survival needs of humans

Subsistence strategies

25

Those who gather, fish, or hunt for food

Food collectors

26

Those who depend on domesticated plants or animals for food

Food producers

27

A form of cultivation based on the technique of clearing uncultivated land, burning the brush, and planting the crops in the ash-enriched soil, which required moving farm plots every few years as the soil becomes exhausted

Extensive agriculture

28

A form of cultivation that employs plows, draft animals, irrigation, fertilizer, and such to being much land under cultivation at one time, to use it year after year, and to produce sufficient crop surpluses

Intensive agriculture

29

Large scale farming and animal husbandry that is highly dependent on industrial methods of technology and production

Mechanized industrial agriculture

30

The part of discipline that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living

Economic anthropology

31

Stable and enduring cultural practices that organize social life

Institutions

32

The transformation of natures raw materials into a form suitable for human use

Production

33

The allocation of goods and services

Distribution

34

The using up of material goods necessary for human survival

Consumption

35

A formal attempt to explain the workings of capitalist enterprise, with particular attention to distribution

Neoclassical economics

36

Patterns according to which distribution takes place: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange

Modes of exchange

37

The exchange of goods and services of equal value. There are three forms: generalized, balanced, and negative

Reciprocity

38

Mode of exchange that requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contribution from all members of the group and to redistribute them in such way that every group member is provided for

Redistribution.

39

The exchange of goods (trade) calculated in terms of a multipurpose medium of exchange and standard of value (money) and carried on by means of supply-demand-price mechanism (the market)

Market exchange

40

The activity linking human social groups to the material world around them, from the point view of Karl Marx, labor is therefore always social labor

Labor

41

A specific, historically occurring set of social relations which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge

Mode of production.

42

The tools, skills, organization, and knowledge used to extract energy from nature

Means of production.

43

The social relations linking the people who use the given means of production with tin a particular mode of production

Relations of production

44

A worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live

Ideology

45

The study of the ways in which living species relate to one another and to their natural environments

Ecology

46

The particular mix of plant and animal species occupying any region of the earth

Ecozone

47

The condition of having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs

Affluence