Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (38):

1

## Term Intention

### The meaning, idea, or concept expressed by a term. The set of attributes or properties that characterize the objects the term is about

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## Term Extension

### The class of objects referred to or denoted by a term. The extension of a term is determined by its intension

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## Necessary Condition

### A necessary condition for B just in case B cannot exist or occur without A. A necessary condition is something that is required for the existence or occurrence of something else, but that may not be enough, all by itself, to guarantee the existence or or occurrence of that thing --> Always rational

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## Sufficient Condition

###
A is a sufficient condition for B just in case the existence or occurrence of A guarantees the existence or occurrence of B

A sufficient condition is something that something else, but that may not be enough, all by itself, guarantees the existence or occurrence of something else

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##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Being a tiger is a _____ condition for being an animal

### Sufficient

6

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Being an animal is a _____ condition for being a tiger

### Necessary

7

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Drinking water is a _____ condition for quenching ones thirst

### Sufficient

8

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Having a racket is a _____ condition for playing tennis

### Necessary

9

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Pulling the cork is a _____ condition for drinking an expensive bottle of wine

### Neither

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##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Stepping on a cats tail is a _____ condition for making a cat yowl

### Sufficient

11

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Burning leaves is a _____ condition for producing smoke

### Sufficient

12

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Paying attention is a _____ condition for understanding a lecture

### Necessary

13

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Taking a swim in the North Sea is a _____ condition for cooling off

### Sufficient

14

##
Necessary or Sufficient?

Opening a door is a _____ condition for crossing the threshold

### Neither

15

## Criteria for Evaluating definitions

###
Not too broad/too narrow

Not to be circular

Not to be negative

Avoid obscurity, vagueness, and ambiguity

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## Too Broad

### Includes too much

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## Too Narrow

### Leaves something out

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## Negative definitions

### Includes the word in the definition

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## Valid and Sound Arguments have what

### True premises and a true conclusion

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## Valid but unsound arguments have what

###
False premises but a true conclusion or false premises and a false conclusion if the premises lead to the conclusion given

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## An argument is invalid and unsound if...

### There are true premises and a false conclusion

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## Deductive Argument

### An argument where the premises necessitate or guarantee the truth of the conclusion

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## Common Deductive Argument Forms

### Math, definitions, categorical syllogism, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism

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## Deductive math arguments

### Because triangle A is congruent with triangle B, and triangle A is isosceles, it follows that triangle B is isosceles

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## Deductive arguments based on definitions

### John is a bachelor, and to be a bachelor just is to be an unmarried male, therefore John is a bachelor

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## Deductive arguments based on categorical syllogism

### All humans are mortal, and Socrates is a human, therefore Socrates is mortal

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## Deductive arguments based on hypothetical syllogism

### If it pours then it rains, and it is pouring, therefore it is raining

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## Deductive arguments based on disjunctive syllogism

### Either taxes increase or the national debt goes up, and it is certainly not the case that taxes will increase, therefore the debt goes up

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## Common Inductive argument forms

### Predictions, analogies, generalizations, arguments from authority, and arguments from signs

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## Inductive arguments based on predictions

### The rainfall in Seattle has been more than 15 in every year for the past 30 years. Therefore, the rainfall in Seattle will probably be more than 15 in this year

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## Inductive arguments based on analogies

### Oranges, are sweet, and apples are like oranges in being fruits, therefore apples are sweet

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## Inductive arguments based on generalizations

### Amoco, Exxon, and Texaco are all listed on the NYSE, therefore all major American oil companies are listed on the NYSE

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## Inductive arguments based on arguments from authority

### Leading cancer researchers almost unanimously maintain that smoking causes cancer, therefore it is likely that smoking does cause cancer

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## Inductive arguments based on arguments from signs

### This highway sign says that the road will be curvy up ahead, therefore it will be

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## Ambiguity

### Word with two or more meanings

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## Ambiguity examples

### Love, headhunter, bank, roll, watch, committed, and row

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## Vagueness

### A word is vague if its extension or denotation admits of borderline cases (grey areas)

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