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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (38):
1

Term Intention

The meaning, idea, or concept expressed by a term. The set of attributes or properties that characterize the objects the term is about

2

Term Extension

The class of objects referred to or denoted by a term. The extension of a term is determined by its intension

3

Necessary Condition

A necessary condition for B just in case B cannot exist or occur without A. A necessary condition is something that is required for the existence or occurrence of something else, but that may not be enough, all by itself, to guarantee the existence or or occurrence of that thing --> Always rational

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Sufficient Condition

A is a sufficient condition for B just in case the existence or occurrence of A guarantees the existence or occurrence of B

A sufficient condition is something that something else, but that may not be enough, all by itself, guarantees the existence or occurrence of something else

5

Necessary or Sufficient?
Being a tiger is a _____ condition for being an animal

Sufficient

6

Necessary or Sufficient?
Being an animal is a _____ condition for being a tiger

Necessary

7

Necessary or Sufficient?
Drinking water is a _____ condition for quenching ones thirst

Sufficient

8

Necessary or Sufficient?
Having a racket is a _____ condition for playing tennis

Necessary

9

Necessary or Sufficient?
Pulling the cork is a _____ condition for drinking an expensive bottle of wine

Neither

10

Necessary or Sufficient?
Stepping on a cats tail is a _____ condition for making a cat yowl

Sufficient

11

Necessary or Sufficient?
Burning leaves is a _____ condition for producing smoke

Sufficient

12

Necessary or Sufficient?
Paying attention is a _____ condition for understanding a lecture

Necessary

13

Necessary or Sufficient?
Taking a swim in the North Sea is a _____ condition for cooling off

Sufficient

14

Necessary or Sufficient?
Opening a door is a _____ condition for crossing the threshold

Neither

15

Criteria for Evaluating definitions

Not too broad/too narrow
Not to be circular
Not to be negative
Avoid obscurity, vagueness, and ambiguity

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Too Broad

Includes too much

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Too Narrow

Leaves something out

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Negative definitions

Includes the word in the definition

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Valid and Sound Arguments have what

True premises and a true conclusion

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Valid but unsound arguments have what

False premises but a true conclusion or false premises and a false conclusion if the premises lead to the conclusion given

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An argument is invalid and unsound if...

There are true premises and a false conclusion

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Deductive Argument

An argument where the premises necessitate or guarantee the truth of the conclusion

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Common Deductive Argument Forms

Math, definitions, categorical syllogism, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism

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Deductive math arguments

Because triangle A is congruent with triangle B, and triangle A is isosceles, it follows that triangle B is isosceles

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Deductive arguments based on definitions

John is a bachelor, and to be a bachelor just is to be an unmarried male, therefore John is a bachelor

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Deductive arguments based on categorical syllogism

All humans are mortal, and Socrates is a human, therefore Socrates is mortal

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Deductive arguments based on hypothetical syllogism

If it pours then it rains, and it is pouring, therefore it is raining

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Deductive arguments based on disjunctive syllogism

Either taxes increase or the national debt goes up, and it is certainly not the case that taxes will increase, therefore the debt goes up

29

Common Inductive argument forms

Predictions, analogies, generalizations, arguments from authority, and arguments from signs

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Inductive arguments based on predictions

The rainfall in Seattle has been more than 15 in every year for the past 30 years. Therefore, the rainfall in Seattle will probably be more than 15 in this year

31

Inductive arguments based on analogies

Oranges, are sweet, and apples are like oranges in being fruits, therefore apples are sweet

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Inductive arguments based on generalizations

Amoco, Exxon, and Texaco are all listed on the NYSE, therefore all major American oil companies are listed on the NYSE

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Inductive arguments based on arguments from authority

Leading cancer researchers almost unanimously maintain that smoking causes cancer, therefore it is likely that smoking does cause cancer

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Inductive arguments based on arguments from signs

This highway sign says that the road will be curvy up ahead, therefore it will be

35

Ambiguity

Word with two or more meanings

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Ambiguity examples

Love, headhunter, bank, roll, watch, committed, and row

37

Vagueness

A word is vague if its extension or denotation admits of borderline cases (grey areas)

38

Vagueness examples

Baldness, heap of _____, courageous, freedom, smart, love, game, coleslaw, art, etc.