Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Logic > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (34):
1

The kinds of sentences that are of interest as premises or conclusions in logic must be

Evaluable as true or false

2

In a good deductive argument, the truth of the conclusion is ______ by the truth of the premises, whereas in a good inductive argument the truth of the conclusion is _______ by the truth of the premises

Guaranteed or entailed (first blank) and Made likely or probable (Second blank)

3

If an argument is valid, then it is best classified as

Deductive

4

If an argument is sound, what else can you infer about it

It is valid

5

If all that you know about an argument is that its premises are ALL true and its conclusion is false, what can you conclude about its validity

It is invalid

6

Being a reasonable human is a necessary condition for being a mammal (T/F)

False

7

Being a square is a sufficient condition for being a shape (T/F)

True

8

Being an animal is a necessary condition for being a cat. It is also sufficient (T/F)

False

9

Being a piece of aged cheddar is necessary but not sufficient for being a cheese (T/F)

False

10

An argument being valid is sufficient for it to be sound (T/F)`

False

11

An argument being sound is sufficient for it being valid (T/F)

True

12

An argument being valid is sufficient for it to have at least one true premise (T/F)

False

13

An argument having ALL true premises and a false conclusion is sufficient for it being invalid

True

14

Being a cheese is a necessary but a sufficient condition for being a dairy product (T/F)

False

15

Being a dog is a necessary but not sufficient condition for being a poodle (T/F)

True

16

Being a quadrilateral is sufficient for being a shape. Being a shape is a ______ condition for being a quadrilateral

Sufficient

17

Being a copy of the play Hamlet is both necessary and sufficient for being a copy of a play originally written by William Shakespeare (T/F)

False

18

In order to be president of the US it is _______ for a qualified person to win a majority of the Electoral College votes

Necessary

19

If a statement P "logically implies" a statement Q, then

If P is true, then Q must be true as well

20

Every true proposition logically implies only true premises (T/F)

True

21

A false proposition can logically imply both other false propositions and other propositions that are true (T/F)

True

22

An argument is valid if

The conclusion is logically implied by the premise(s)

23

An argument is sound just in the case that it is

Valid and has all true premises

24

If you only know that na argument has all false premises and it is valid, what can you conclude about the conclusion

The conclusion must be true

25

If you know that an argument has all true premises and a false conclusion, what can you conclude about this argument

The argument is invalid

26

In order for an argument to be valid it is sufficient for its premises to logically imply its conclusion (T/F)

True

27

In order for an argument to be valid, it is necessary for its premises to logically imply its conclusion (T/F)

True

28

Any two arguments having the same logical form are

Either both valid or both invalid

29

If you are unsure whether argument 'A' is valid or invalid, but you know of an argument 'B' that has the same logical form and has all true premises and a false conclusion, what can you conclude about argument 'A'

Argument 'A' is invalid

30

In order for a term to be ambiguous it is necessary and sufficient for

It to have two or more normal meanings

31

In order for a term to be vague it is necessary and sufficient for

Its extension to admit borderline cases

32

In logical theory the syntax is

The grammar and symbols of the language

33

In logical theory the semantics is

The meaning or truth conditions of the language

34

In a truth table, an argument is valid if _______, and what tell us is that ______

There is no row where the premises are all true and the conclusion is false (first blank) and It is impossible for the premises to all be true and the conclusion be false (second blank)