Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (34):

1

## The kinds of sentences that are of interest as premises or conclusions in logic must be

### Evaluable as true or false

2

## In a good deductive argument, the truth of the conclusion is ______ by the truth of the premises, whereas in a good inductive argument the truth of the conclusion is _______ by the truth of the premises

### Guaranteed or entailed (first blank) and Made likely or probable (Second blank)

3

## If an argument is valid, then it is best classified as

### Deductive

4

## If an argument is sound, what else can you infer about it

### It is valid

5

## If all that you know about an argument is that its premises are ALL true and its conclusion is false, what can you conclude about its validity

### It is invalid

6

## Being a reasonable human is a necessary condition for being a mammal (T/F)

### False

7

## Being a square is a sufficient condition for being a shape (T/F)

### True

8

## Being an animal is a necessary condition for being a cat. It is also sufficient (T/F)

### False

9

## Being a piece of aged cheddar is necessary but not sufficient for being a cheese (T/F)

### False

10

## An argument being valid is sufficient for it to be sound (T/F)`

### False

11

## An argument being sound is sufficient for it being valid (T/F)

### True

12

## An argument being valid is sufficient for it to have at least one true premise (T/F)

### False

13

## An argument having ALL true premises and a false conclusion is sufficient for it being invalid

### True

14

## Being a cheese is a necessary but a sufficient condition for being a dairy product (T/F)

### False

15

## Being a dog is a necessary but not sufficient condition for being a poodle (T/F)

### True

16

## Being a quadrilateral is sufficient for being a shape. Being a shape is a ______ condition for being a quadrilateral

### Sufficient

17

## Being a copy of the play Hamlet is both necessary and sufficient for being a copy of a play originally written by William Shakespeare (T/F)

### False

18

## In order to be president of the US it is _______ for a qualified person to win a majority of the Electoral College votes

### Necessary

19

## If a statement P "logically implies" a statement Q, then

### If P is true, then Q must be true as well

20

## Every true proposition logically implies only true premises (T/F)

### True

21

## A false proposition can logically imply both other false propositions and other propositions that are true (T/F)

### True

22

## An argument is valid if

### The conclusion is logically implied by the premise(s)

23

## An argument is sound just in the case that it is

### Valid and has all true premises

24

## If you only know that na argument has all false premises and it is valid, what can you conclude about the conclusion

### The conclusion must be true

25

## If you know that an argument has all true premises and a false conclusion, what can you conclude about this argument

### The argument is invalid

26

## In order for an argument to be valid it is sufficient for its premises to logically imply its conclusion (T/F)

### True

27

## In order for an argument to be valid, it is necessary for its premises to logically imply its conclusion (T/F)

### True

28

## Any two arguments having the same logical form are

### Either both valid or both invalid

29

## If you are unsure whether argument 'A' is valid or invalid, but you know of an argument 'B' that has the same logical form and has all true premises and a false conclusion, what can you conclude about argument 'A'

### Argument 'A' is invalid

30

## In order for a term to be ambiguous it is necessary and sufficient for

### It to have two or more normal meanings

31

## In order for a term to be vague it is necessary and sufficient for

### Its extension to admit borderline cases

32

## In logical theory the syntax is

### The grammar and symbols of the language

33

## In logical theory the semantics is

### The meaning or truth conditions of the language

34