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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (56):
1

Central Insights of Sociology

1. We are all thoroughly interconnected
2. Things are not always as they appear
3. We make assumptions that often go unquestioned
4. What we learn in the context of our culture

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C. Wright Mills

The sociological imagination

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Sociological methods of knowing

Systematic
Comprehensive
Group effort

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Sociological methods of knowing
-systematic

This is deliberate and organized.
There is a need to define what things mean.

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Sociological methods of knowing: comprehensive

Big picture

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The Sociological Imagination

"Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both." C. Wright Mills.

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How does society shape out individual experiences and our perceptions of those experiences.
Making the connection between the big picture and the induvial.

The Sociological Imagination

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How do we know what we know?

• At the everyday ordinary level, what we see and hear and what we don’t see and hear
• Our socialization

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Problems with our knowing at the everyday ordinary level

• Faulty generalizations and assumptions from a single case
• Affected by our prevailing myths and stereotypes

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Sociological methods of knowing: Group Effort

when studies replicated= more complete view

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Dependent variable

Effect


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Independent Variable

Cause

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Field Experiments

There are no controlled settings
-An example of this would be something like faking a heart attack on the streets of CA and seeing who helps. The IV would be faked heart attack. The DV would be the people passing by ignore

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Surveys

-mail
-phone interview
- Face to face
-observation
-existing sources
-previous studies

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Survey: Mail

-lease expensive
-More anonymous
-More time to respond
-Can do a lot in a short time


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Survey: Phone Interviews

Folks may not have time

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Survey:Face to Face

-In depth, in person
-Very costly
-Can clarify questions and answers’

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Survey: Observation

-Nothing changed by researcher
-Detached-need to make assumptions
-Participant-affect group behavior

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Survey: Existing sources

-Census
-News media
-Film Footage

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Surveys: Previous studies

-Benefit from others insights and findings
-Build on existing knowledge

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Quantitative vs Qualitative Approach

Quantitative
-Numbers are percent’s, ratios, sophisticated
-Number of panels, square feet, visitors
Qualitative
-Characteristics, attributes, worth
-Why folks make a panel
-Impact of a visit to quilt

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THE POINT

interaction is structured, ordered, scripted and patterned

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Status

-A position we occupy that defines our relationship to someone else
-Born into relationships with others
-Involves hierarchy

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Master Status

-Most important status as perceived by others
-Usually based on occupation

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Achieved status

-You did something to get there
-Not always positive

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Ascribed Status

-You find yourself there
-By birth or involuntarily later in life

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Roles

Behavior that you do in relationship to a status PLAY a role

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Role Conflict

Student/parent

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Role Strain

Competing demands coming from within the same role

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Groups

-Structured interaction (sheriff and sheriff)
-A common culture is shared
-Involves status and roles over a long time

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Aggregates

People in the same place at the same time. Remember that interactions are structured, ordered and scripted.

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Primary Groups:

-Small, informal
-extended interaction
-intimate, mutually supportive
-emotional ties and attachments

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Secondary Group:

-Larger
-Temporary
-Superficial
-Task Oriented
-More impersonal and formal

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Institutions

-Large scale, serve a purpose for society
-Channel Behavior

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Society

-A population that occupies the same territory
-Is subject to the same political authority and shares a common culture

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THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

MACRO and MICRO

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Macro

The big picture
Understanding behavior at the structural level
Society, culture, institutions

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Micro

Small Picture
Understanding the behavior at the individual level
Communication styles in dyads

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ORDER MODEL (functionalism)

Macro theory- emile durkhiem

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Society

one entity with different parts that work for the good of the whole.Each part has a function and If a part becomes non functional, it will cease to exist

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The order model emphasizes

cohesion, consensus, cooperation, reciprocity, stability, persistence, the contribution of and equilibrium among society’s institutions

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CONFLICT MODEL (Critical Theory)

Macro- Karl Marx
Conflict theory is a theory propounded by Karl Marx that claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict due to competition for limited resources`

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Inequality

resources and rewards are unevenly distributed and cause serious consequences in individuals life.

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Who benefits from conflict model?

Social systems are not neutral and some groups benefit from existing conditions. Change is promoted and if it eliminates oppression and exploitation. Activist orientation.

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Symbolic interactionism

a micro approach
Up close, everyday, ordinary
Small group interaction
World is constructed through symbols
Meaning is contextual- V sign
Reality based on subjective interpretation

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THE THOMAS THEROREM

that which we treat as real becomes real in its consequences

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THE DRAMATURGICAL APPROACH

Erving Goffman

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Categories of human behavior

Front stage behavior- public
Aligning actions- what do we do when our image is blown
Backstage behavior-private

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Doing sociology from an SI perspective

ETHNOMETHODOLOGY: the study of the methods and techniques used by people to make sense of the world

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Non material elements of culture

-Norms Continuum: Not all norms are the same
-Folkways are informal rules and minor infractions and sanctions
-Mores are more formal/serious and more severe negative sanctions
-Taboos are the most serious-cannibalism and are very rare

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Values

general notions/feelings about what’s good and bad or right and wrong.

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Sanctions +/- pressure on us to stay in line.

Rewards for conformity (positive)
Punishments for non-conformity (negative)

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Symbols/language

Words=symbols
Carries of meaning=contextual
Symbols are not just about intellect
Charged emotionally

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The linguistic relativity hypothesis- sapir and whorf

-Words predispose us to perceive the world in certain ways
-Culture is a lens/filter= it organizes what we see

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Ethnocentrism

is the universial tendency to deprecate the ways of other people from other societies as wrong, old fashioned, immoral and think of the ways of ones own group as superior.

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Cultural Relativism

looking at the practices and beliefs of another culture relative to that culture.