Exam #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #1 Deck (170):
1

Which of the following are ruminants

pronghorn
elk

2

Which of the following are functionally similar to the stomach in the pig

abomassum
proventriculus

3

Villi

-typically cannot be seen with the naked eye
- contain microvilli on their surface to enhance surface are for absorption
-make-up what is referred to as the intestinal brush border

4

The duodenum

-takes on a distinct S-shape appearance
- receives secretions from the pancreas and over/gall bladder
-connects to the abomasum n ruminants

5

Rennin

-active in the abomasum in milk-fed lambs
-important for proper utilization of milk nutrients
-used in the cheese-making process

6

Hindgut fermenters differ from ruminants in that they

-will typically have larger pieces of fiber in their feces
-do not make use of microbial amino acids
-do not absorb VFA effeciently

7

Which of the following are true about taste buds

-taste buds that detect sweet are concentrated on the tip of the tongue
-ruminants tend to have more than pigs
-pigs taste sweet more than bitter

8

The diverticulum

-often contains many whole seeds/grains recently consumed by bird
-does not exist in geese

9

The cecum

-has only one entry/exit point, and is this a blind sac
-is a paired structure in most birds

10

The gall bladder

-storage organ for bile
-located underneath the liver in most species
-does not exist on horses

11

The mesentery

-thin membrane that holds the small intestine in place
-highly vascularized with both blood and lymph capillaries

12

The Crypts of Lieberkuhn

-basal pockets found at the base of the vili
-secrete digestive hormone CCK and secretin

13

The small colon

-second (distal) portion of the large intestine
-plays an important role in water conservation
-more eficiente in sheep than cattle
-takes on a spinal appearance, especially in ruminants

14

Rumination

-involves regurgitation of stomach contents
- increase the utilization of forages
-another name for cud chewing

15

The gastrointestinal tract of the chicken differs from that of the pig in that

-salivary amylase stays active fot a much longer time
- cannot digest lactose
-has two cecum (ceca)
-has a cloaca and vent, rather than a rectum and anus
-much shorter large intestine relative to other livestock

16

The jejunum

-primary sire of absorption for digested nutrients in a pig
-constitutes the majority of the length of the small intestine

17

The proventriculus

secretes HCl and digestive enzymes

18

Psuedrumiants differ from ruminants in that they

have 3 compartment stomach

19

The lacteal

-lymph capillary found in small intestine
-functions in the absorption of lipids

20

The ventriculus

-lined with kaolin to protect inner lining against abrasion
-often contains small stones or grit to enhance mechanical digestion

21

Which species produce salivary amylase

chicken
pig

22

The pancreas

-anatomically lies within the first loop of the duodenum
-secrete buffers into small intestine

23

the large colon

primary site of fiber fermentation in large handgun fermenters such as a horse

24

sphincter muscle at the terminal end of the alimentary canal

anus

25

vestigial portion of the cecum in humans

appendix

26

secretes an alkaline mucous into the small intestine to protect against damage from stomach acid

Brunner's Glands

27

muscular valve that keeps stomach contents from entering the esophagus

cardiac sphincter

28

stomach cells that secrete digestive enzymes

chief cells

29

common chamber into which the digestive and reproductive tacts open in birds

cloaca

30

scientific name for swallowing

deglutition

31

special name for an epithelia cell lining the villi

enterocyte

32

process impaired during luminal bloat

eructation

33

muscular tube involved in deglutition

esophagus

34

accessory organ not found in horses

gall bladder

35

mucous- secreting cells embedded in the surface of the villi

goblet cells

36

lymph capillary found in the villi

lacteal

37

accessory organ that secretes bile

liver

38

scientific name for chewing food

mastication

39

accessory organ that lies within the first S-shaped loop of the duodenum

pancreas

40

secrete lysozyme into the small intestine to kill bacteria

paneth cells

41

stomach cells that secrete HCl

parietal cells

42

clusters of white blood cells that project into the small intestine

peyers patches

43

structure at the back of the throat that is part of both the respiratory and digestive tracts

pharynx

44

gathering food and it into the mouth

prehension

45

muscular valve that regulates passage of stomach contents to small intestine

pyloric sphincter

46

portion of the alimentary canal that lies within the pelvic cavity

rectum

47

function of the esophagus not done in horses

regurgitation

48

Which of the following are heteroglycans

pectin
hemicellulose

49

which are glucans

amylose
cellulose
amylopectin

50

Lacatse is

-embedded in small intestine brush border
-usually more active in younger mammals than in adults
-not produced by avian species

51

sugar alcohols

-hydrogenated mono and disaccharides
-lower in calories that sucrose
-responsible for the cooling sensation on the tongue when chewing sugar free gum

52

foods with low glycemic index

-may be low in carbohydrates and high in fiber
-are more slowly digested in gastrointestinal tract
-decrease the need for insulin secretion
-may be beneficial for endurance athletes

53

Sucralose

-chlorinated form of sucrose
-not digested by sucrase
-about 600 times sweeter than sucrose
-artificial sweetener found in foods containing splenda

54

which of the following are absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism

-galactose
-glucose

55

Stevia

-made from the leaves of south american plant
-not digested by microbes
-typically provides a delayed onset and longer duration of sweet taste
-may give licorice aftertaste

56

branched gluten used as a storage carbohydrate in animals

glycogen

57

disaccharide containing galactose + glucose

lactose

58

disaccharide containing glucose + fructose

sucrose

59

disaccharide containing glucose + glucose with b(1,4) glycosidic bond

cellobiose

60

disaccharide containing glucose + glucose with an a(1,4) glycosidic bond

maltose

61

fiber component that is not a carbohydrate but influences that utilization of forage carbohydrates

lignin

62

heptose monosaccharide that is a ketose

sedoheptulose

63

heteroglycan that is a primary component of the plant cell wall

hemicellulose

64

heteroglycan that makes up the white mesh in an apple

pectin

65

hexose monosaccharide that is a ketose

fructose

66

hexose monosaccharide that is an aldose

galactose

67

homoglycan containing only glucose

glucan

68

homoglycan found in high concentration in chickory and blue agave

fructan

69

intermediate formed in the breakdown of amylopectin by amylase

limit dextrin

70

monosaccharide with the carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon chain

aldose

71

monosaccharide with the carbonyl group located at the one carbon from the end of the carbon chain

ketose

72

pentose monosaccharide that is an aldose

ribose

73

polysaccharide of glucose linked by both a(1,4) and a(1,6) glycosidic bonds

amylopectin

74

polysaccharide of glucose linked by only a(1,4)

amylose

75

polysaccharide of glucose linked by only b(1,4)

cellulose

76

process used to synthesize glucose in an animal usually in the liver

gluconeogenesis

77

ring structure configuration of fructose

glucogenesis

78

ring structure configuration of glucose

pyranose ring

79

tetrose monosaccharide that is an aldose

erythrose

80

triose monosaccharide that is a ketose

dihydroxyacetone

81

moistens and emulsifies the food

saliva

82

aids in particle size

mastication

83

initiates the digestion of starch

salivary amylase

84

presence of food in stomach stimulates release of __ from the ___

gastrin
pylorus

85

includes the release gastric HCl from

parietal cells

86

digestive enzymes from the

chief cells

87

these come from the __ region of the stomach

fundic

88

this hormone stimulates production of

mucous

89

digestion of the __ in the pizza into smaller peptides

proteins

90

stomach acid in small intestine stimulates release of ___ from the ___

secretin
crypts of lierberkuhn

91

This hormone releases stimulates __

pancreas

92

in the presence of peptides in the small intestine the hormone __ is released from __

CCK
crypts of lierberkuhn

93

This hormone stimulates the

pancreas

94

primary carbohydrate-degrading enzyme

pancreatic amylase

95

resulting in the formation of the disaccharide

maltose

96

active transport mechanism referred to as

sodium pump

97

digested by the enzyme

lactase

98

If a steer and a horse of equal body weight were fed 10 lbs of oats which would gain more

horse would gain more
-horses digest oats before it undergoes fermentation
-steers ferment before pass the small intestine for digestion and absorption
-more heat and gas lost from steer

99

a steer, lamb, horse fed same grass hay compare the consistency of the feces produced

Steer: runny, smooth, no distinguishable particles due to particle size breakdown through rumination
Lamb: small, round, dry pellets, no particles lamb undergoes rumination and absorbs more water
horse: round, dry, coarse horse doesn't ruminate can't masticate more that once

100

Why does a steer fed a 90% grain diet gain weight faster that a steer fed grass hay

steers fed grains loose less energy in the form of gas
-acetate , propionate, and butyrate are 3 VFA's formed
-grains produce less acetate, more propionate therefore less eructation occurs with grain than forages and more energy it utilized

101

Define the term Cal

1 Cal or 1 Kcal= 1000 calories
-1 Cal= heat energy required to raise temp 1 degree C

102

What is Unami, and what feeds are typically high in it

is a taste of savory
-steak

103

do ruminants produce salivary amylase

No but amalyse from nasolbial glands in muzzle
-get amylase from licking nose

104

Explain lactose intolerant

they cannot synthesize lactase to break down the carb lactose. thus milk is processed through small intestine and fermented in large intestine

105

describe the approx size and location of the esophageal groove in newborn calf

runs from the esophagus to abomasum by passing the reticulorumen. Lies in the side of two reticulum and is 2 ft long

106

Describe displaced abomasum and why life threatening

after parturition dairy cattle can have their abomasum slide under their rumen to the left side
-pinches off flow of digestion into and out of abomasum and can cause death

107

why nutrients believed to be developed to unique digestion

ruminants able to gather food in morning and stay in the shade and ruminate rest of the day to avoid predators

108

hardware disease

hardware (nails) are in the reticulum
-can put a hole in reticulum, diaphragm and even pericardium causing heart failure

109

aids in particle size

mastication

110

the enzyme __ initiates digestion of starch

salivary amylase

111

15-30 min

denatures in stomach

112

stomach stimulates the release of hormone __ from the __

gastrin
pylorus

113

including release of digestive enzymes from

chief cells

114

gastric acid from __ both are in

parietal cells
fundic

115

stimulates production of

mucous

116

begins the digestion

proteins

117

the hormone __ released from __

cck
crypts of lieburkuhn

118

hormone stimulates

pancreas

119

acive transport mechanism referred to as

sodium pump

120

major carb digested by enzyme __ located __

maltase
brush border

121

simple stomach diagram

-esophageal
-cardiac
-pyloric
-fundic

122

compound stomach

-rumen
-omasum
-reticulum
-abomasum

123

salivary glands dog

-parotid
-zygomatic
-mandibular
-sublingual

124

small intestine villi

-enterocyte
-crypts of lieberkuhn
-blood capillaries
-lacteal

125

other digestive system

-cecum
-small colon
-large colon
-stomach

126

chicken digestive

-diverticulum
-proventriculus
-venrtriculus
-duodenum
-pancreas
-jejunum
-illeum
-cloaca
-rectum
-vent

127

which of the following are absorbed from the small intestine via active transport mechanisms

-galactose
-glucose

128

which of the following polysaccharides contain a branch in their structure

-amylopectin
-glycogen

129

which of the following are digestive hormones secreted by digestive tract

-gastrin
-cholecystokinin
-secretin

130

lactase is

-usually more active in younger mammals
-not produces by again species

131

amylase

-breaks a(1,4) glycosidic
-secreted by pancreas
-detergent like effect in small intestine

132

sucralose

-chlorinated form sucrose
-not digested by sucrase
-sweeter sucrose
-artificial sweetner

133

sugar alcohols

-mono and disaccharides with carbonyl
-typically less digestible
-lower calories
-mask aftertaste

134

which of the following oligosaccharides

sucrose

135

hemicellulose

closely associated with cellulose

136

glycogen

-animal starch
-stored in liver

137

pectin

-compnent of fiber

138

limit dextrins

-contains one a(1,6)
-one a(1,4)
-debranching enzymes
-commonly found in bread

139

fructans

-fructose
-provide anti-freeze in plants

140

lignin

-fiber
-structurally rigidity to plants
-large impact digestion

141

foods with hi GI

-white bread, potato

142

Villi

-small finger shaped
-contain microvilli on surface
-not seen with eye
-intestinal brush border

143

Crypts of liberkuhn

-basal pockets
-secrete CCK and secretin
-buffers small intestine

144

ventriculus

-consumed as delicacy
-contains small stones

145

large colon

-primary fermentation site
rectum

146

rectum

-portion of alimentary canal
-expelling feces
-terminates in sphincter

147

monosaccharides are hexoses

-glucose
-fructose
-glactose

148

heteroglycans

-hemicellulose
-pectin

149

glucans

-amylopectin
-amylose
-cellulose

150

omasum

-normally size and shape basketball
-right side of compound stomach

151

diverticulum

-known as crop
-whole seeds/grain

152

rumen

-major microbial digestion
-located left side
-muscular folds

153

brunners gland

-embedded in wall small intestine
-secrete alkaline mucous into small intestine

154

jejunum

-constitutes majority of length of small intestine
-lined with villi enhance surface area

155

reticulum

-1st compartment
-lined with ridges
-lower from of compound
-hardware disease occurs

156

pharynx

-funnel shaped structure
-both digestive and respiratory tracts

157

goblet cells

-mucous secreting cells

158

eructation

-impaired in ruminants
-keeps cows from exploding

159

paneth cells

-specialized secretory cells located at bottom of crypts
-secrete lysozyme to kill bacteria

160

prehension

-gather food and bringing to mouth
-involves use of tongue, teeth, lips

161

rumination

-involves regurgitation
-utilization of forages
-cud chewing

162

small colon

-spiral appearance
-water conservation

163

duodenum

-receives secretions
-connects to pyloric
-connects to abomasum

164

peyers patches

-synthesize antibodies
-roughly 70% immune system

165

cecum

-one entry/exit point
-paired structure in most birds

166

gall bladder

-storage organ bile
-underneath liver
-not in horses

167

mastication

-mechanical digestion
-particle size reduction
-chewing
-rumination

168

abomasum

-lines with mucosal folds
-secretes HCl and enzyems

169

pancreas

-anatomically first loop
-secreted amylase
-secretes buffers

170

mesentary

-thin membrane holds small intestine
-highly vascularized