Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (259):
1

Saturated fatty acids normally contain double bonds in the cis configuration?

F

2

Saturated fatty acids contain fewer H atoms than an unsaturated fatty acid of the same length?

F

3

Saturated fatty acids decrease the melting point of a mixture of fatty acids

F

4

Saturated fatty acids have a higher iodine number than an unsaturated fatty acid of the same length?

F

5

Omega-3 fatty acids contain 3 double bonds in their side chain

F

6

Omega-3 fatty acids may have potential health benefits via anti-inflammatory effects on the body

T

7

Omega-3 fatty acids are formed in the process of biohydrogentation of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen

F

8

Omega-3 fatty acids are found in high concentrations in the adipose tissue of salmon, trout, and other fish oils

T

9

Omega-3 fatty acids are found in high concentrations in the adipose tissue if cattle and sheep

F

10

Triglycerides are the predominant form of lipid in the human diet

T

11

Triglycerides make up the majority of the lipid in animal food products

T

12

Triglycerides are synthesized inside the enterocyte during lipid absorption

T

13

Triglycerides are not digested in the stomach of an adult pig

T

14

Triglycerides pass through the rumen unmodified by rumen microbes

F

15

Phospholipids make up the majority of lipid in forage plants

F

16

Phospholipids make up the majority if lipid in the cell membrane

T

17

Phospholipids stimulates smooth muscle to contract

F

18

Phospholipids contain at least one fatty acid, usually one of the dietary essential fatty acids

T

19

Phospholipids contain a nitrogenous base (such as choline or ethanolamine)

T

20

Glycolipids are synthesized from cholesterol

F

21

Glycolipids make up the majority of the lipid in forage plants

T

22

Glycolipids form micelles, vesicles, or bilayer sheets when placed in water

F

23

Glycolipids can be blocked from being synthesized by NSAIDs

F

24

Glycolipids are commonly found on the surface of red blood cells

T

25

Lipoproteins are intermediates formed in the process of saponification of triglycerides

F

26

Lipoproteins are transport molecules for lipids in the blood

T

27

Lipoproteins make up the majority of the myelin sheath

F

28

Lipoproteins make up the majority of the lipid in forage plants

F

29

Lipoproteins are formed in the small intestine upon the action of bile

F

30

Which of the following are true about cholesterol? it serves as the parent molecule for synthesis of prostaglandins

F

31

Which of the following are true about cholesterol? it serves as the parent molecule for synthesis of Vitamin D and bile acids

T

32

Which of the following are true about cholesterol? most free cholesterol os found esterfied to a fatty acid (a cholesterol ester)

T

33

Which of the following are true about cholesterol? it is transported in the blood associated with lipoproteins

T

34

Which of the following are true about cholesterol? it can typically be found embedded in cell membrane

T

35

Which of the following are phospholipids? cephalin

T

36

Which of the following are phospholipids? sphingomyelin

T

37

Which of the following are phospholipids? lecithin

T

38

Which of the following are phospholipids? cerebroside

F

39

Which of the following are phospholipids? prostaglandin

F

40

Which of the following are synthesized from cholesterol? estrogen

T

41

Which of the following are synthesized from cholesterol? progesterone

T

42

Which of the following are synthesized from cholesterol? insulin

F

43

Which of the following are synthesized from cholesterol? cortisol

T

44

Which of the following are synthesized from cholesterol? prostaglandin

F

45

Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the fluid nature of oils

T

46

Polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the melting point of fat/oil

F

47

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are kinked/bent in physical appearance

T

48

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are more common in plant lipids than in animal lipids

T

49

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are more end product of complete biohydrogentation of fatty acids in the rumen

F

50

Oxidation of fats/oils forms free radicals that break the C-C bonds of fatty acids

T

51

Oxidation of fats/oils is more common with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids

F

52

Oxidation of fats/oils can be controlled by adding Vitamin E or selenium to the diet

T

53

Oxidation of fats/oils results in formation of shorter chain fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds

T

54

Oxidation of fats/oils generally gives a disagreeable odor/flavor to the fat/oil

T

55

Chylomicrons are the largest type of glycolipid

F

56

Chylomicrons are formed inside the enterocyte (golgi apparatus) during lipid absorption

T

57

Chylomicrons are absorbed from the enterocyte via passive diffusion

F

58

Chylomicrons are absorbed from the enterocyte into the lacteal in mammals

T

59

Chylomicrons can be blocked from being synthesized by NSAIDs

F

60

Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid via cycloxygenase (COX) enzymes

T

61

Prostaglandins are responsible for development of the inflammatory response by the body

T

62

Prostaglandins are secreted by the chief cells in the stomach

F

63

Prostaglandins have an important function in female reproduction

T

64

Prostaglandins can be blocked from being synthesized by NSAIDs

T

65

Olestra is used in "fat free" varieties of potato chips and other snack foods

T

66

Olestra is made from vegetable oil and table sugar

F

67

Olestra blocks the activity of pancreatic lipase by 30%

F

68

Olestra is not recognized by pancreatic lipase, and therefor is not digested in the small intestine

T

69

Olestra may result in "anal leakage" when consumed in large quantities

T

70

Dietary essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the animal body (or insufficient quantity to meet requirements)

T

71

Dietary essential fatty acids require exogenous source

T

72

Dietary essential fatty acids are typically used as the fatty acid component of phospholipids

T

73

Dietary essential fatty acids include linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids for most livestock species

T

74

Dietary essential fatty acids does not include arachidonic acid for humans

T

75

Trans fatty acids are intermediates formed in the process of hydrogenation of fatty acids

T

76

Trans fatty acids are intermediates formed in the process of oxidation of fatty acids

F

77

Trans fatty acids are the most common type of fatty acid found in the human diet

F

78

Trans fatty acids can be formed during the process of biohydrogentation of fatty acids in the rumen

T

79

Trans fatty acids are associated with potential health concerns (heart disease)

T

80

Orlistat is the active ingredient in drugs such as Alli and Xenical

T

81

Orlistat blocks the secretion of bile, thereby decreasing lipid digestion

F

82

Orlistat blocks the release of gastric lipase by the chief cells in the stomach

F

83

Orlistat blocks the activity of pancreatic lipase

T

84

Orlistat blocks the release of cholecystokinin, thereby reducing pancreatic lipase secretion

F

85

Rumenic acid is an anti carcinogenic fatty acid found in ruminant- derived food sources

T

86

Rumenic acid is a toxic fatty acid secreted by rumen microbes

F

87

Rumenic acid contains a conjugated double bond

T

88

Rumenic acid contains both a cis and a trans double bond

T

89

Rumenic acid is formed during the process of biohydrogentation of linoleic acid by rumen microbes

T

90

Gastric lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides to form glycerol and 3 free fatty acids

F

91

Gastric lipase is secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach

F

92

Gastric lipase has a preference for medium chain length fatty acids such as those found in milk

T

93

Gastric lipase is inactive in the stomach of an adult pig

T

94

Gastric lipase contributes to the digestion of triglycerides in the small intestine

T

95

Which of the following are true about amino acids? the L isomer of amino acids is used to synthesize protein

T

96

Which of the following are true about amino acids? amino acids are zwitterions at physiological pH

T

97

Which of the following are true about amino acids? amino acids are amphoteric

T

98

Which of the following are true about amino acids? the functional (R) group of a standard amino acid is attached to the a carbon

T

99

Which of the following are true about amino acids? there may be up to 20 amino acids found in protein

F

100

Limiting amino acids are non protein amino acids that regulate protein metabolism by an animal

F

101

Limiting amino acids control the degree of H bonding in secondary protein structure

F

102

Limiting amino acids are represented by the shortest slat/stave in the Liebig's barrel concept

T

103

Limiting amino acids determine the maximum quantity of a given protein that can be synthesized

T

104

Limiting amino acids are usually either lysine or methionine for livestock fed typical diets

T

105

Indispensable amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body (or in sufficient quantity)

T

106

Indispensable amino acids must be supplied by an exogenous source

T

107

Indispensable amino acids can sometimes be used to synthesize a dispensable amino acid

T

108

Indispensable amino acids are not required for cattle and sheep

F

109

Indispensable amino acids are the same as dietary essential amino acids for swine and poultry

T

110

Glycine is the simplest amino acid, with an R group consisting of a single H

T

111

Glycine is a netral amino acid

T

112

Glycine is a conditionally essential amino acid for growing poultry

T

113

Glycine is a dietary essential amino acid for cats and neonates

F

114

Glycine is an indispensable amino acid for ruminant livestock

F

115

Carnitine is a dietary essential amino acid for humans

F

116

Carnitine is made by forming a S-S bond between two cysteine

F

117

Carnitine functions as a carrier for fatty acids into the mitochondria for B- oxidation

T

118

Carnitine can be used for quick bursts of energy in muscle

F

119

Carnitine enhances the body's sensitivity to caffeine

F

120

Taurine is a dietary essential amino acid for cats and neonates

T

121

Taurine functions as a carrier for fatty acids into the mitochondria for B oxidation

F

122

Taurine is a common ingredient added to many energy drinks

T

123

Taurine deficiency can result in macular degeneration and dilated cardiomyopathy

T

124

Taurine deficiency would impair an animals ability to properly digest lipids

T

125

Cystine can be used to synthesize methionine in mammals

F

126

Cystine is an indispensable amino acid

F

127

Cystine is made by forming a S-S bond between two cysteine within a protein

T

128

Cystine is formed during post translational modification of amino acids

T

129

Cystine is important for formation of tertiary structure of proteins

T

130

Creatine (creatine phosphate) is converted non-enzymatically into creatine

T

131

Creatine (creatine phosphate) is a component of one of the bile acids

F

132

Creatine (creatine phosphate) aids in water retention by muscle cells

T

133

Creatine (creatine phosphate) may stimulate fast twitch muscle hypertrophy

T

134

Creatine (creatine phosphate) can be used for quick bursts of energy in muscle

T

135

Hydroxyproline is a non-protein amino acid

F

136

Hydroxyproline is an amino acid

T

137

Hydroxyproline can be synthesized from the indispensable amino acid threonine

F

138

Hydroxyproline is formed only during post translational modification of amino acids

T

139

Hydroxyproline is important for normal cross-linking in collagen structure

T

140

Which of the following is true regarding the structure of proteins? the primary structure of protein consists of peptide bonds between amino acids

T

141

Which of the following is true regarding the structure of proteins? there will always be a free amine and a free carboxyl group at opposite ends of the protein

T

142

Which of the following is true regarding the structure of proteins? both alpha helix and beta sheet conformations exist in a proteins secondary structure

T

143

Which of the following is true regarding the structure of proteins? the quaternary structure of protein will always involve more than one protein

T

144

Which of the following is true regarding the structure of proteins? the 3 dimensional structure of protein is maintained through H- bonding, S-S bonds, etc

T

145

Denaturing a protein may be done via exposure to heat, acid/base, alcohol, etc

T

146

Denaturing a protein often results in a change in the physical conformation of a protein

T

147

Denaturing a protein is always an irreversible process

F

148

Denaturing a protein may cause that protein to lose its biological function

T

149

Denaturing a protein is the process used to make blue cheese

F

150

Nitrates are the primary N excretion products in birds

F

151

Nitrates are converted to nitrite by rumen microbes

T

152

Nitrates are often found in high concentrations in drought-sicken forages

T

153

Nitrates bind to hemoglobin (as NO2) thereby resulting in death via asphyxiation

T

154

Nitrates toxicity is diagnosed by observing a chocolate color to a sample of the anima's blood

T

155

Urea is the primary N excretion product in mammals

T

156

Urea is the primary N excretion product in birds

F

157

Urea is water soluble

T

158

Urea is formed by removal of the end of the R group from arginine

T

159

Urea can build up in the joints in mammals resulting in the condition known as gout

F

160

Which of the following is true regarding the use of amino acids as a source of energy? amino acids can only be used for energy in ruminants

F

161

Which of the following is true regarding the use of amino acids as a source of energy? amino acids will yield approximately 4 Kcal/g in a bomb calorimeter

F

162

Which of the following is true regarding the use of amino acids as a source of energy? the PFV value for amino acids does not account for the energetic cost of urea synthesis

F

163

Which of the following is true regarding the use of amino acids as a source of energy? either gluconegenesis or oxidation/ ketogeneisis are used to make ATP from amino acids

T

164

Which of the following is true regarding the use of amino acids as a source of energy? only those amino acids from the taller slats/ staves in Leibig's barrel are used for energy

T

165

Amines are the primary N excretion product in birds

F

166

Amines are formed by decarboxylation of amino acids (usually by microbes)

T

167

Amines are intermediates in the urea cycle in mammals

F

168

Amines include cadaverine, putrescine, skatole

T

169

Amines include uric acid and allantoin

F

170

The Jones' factor is a critical enzyme used to initiate the proteolytic enzyme cascade

F

171

The Jones' factor is a number multiplied times a food/feed's N content to calculate crude protein

T

172

The Jones' factor is a hormone used to stimulate the release of enzymes from the pancreas

F

173

The Jones' factor is calculated as 100 divided by the average N content of amino acids

T

174

The Jones' factor for a given protein varies with he amino acid composition of that protein

T

175

Uric acid is a water- soluble white crystal

F

176

Uric acid is the primary N excretion product in mammals

F

177

Uric acid is the primary N excretion product in birds

T

178

Uric acid is normally converted into allocation in mammalian species

T

179

Uric acid can build up in the joints in mammals resulting in the condition known as gout

T

180

Which of the following foods/feeds would most likely to contain trypsin inhibitors? raw soybeans

T

181

Which of the following foods/feeds would most likely to contain trypsin inhibitors? dry roasted peanuts

F

182

Which of the following foods/feeds would most likely to contain trypsin inhibitors? raw egg whites

F

183

Which of the following foods/feeds would most likely to contain trypsin inhibitors? soybean meal

F

184

Which of the following foods/feeds would most likely to contain trypsin inhibitors? drought stricken hay made from a fertilized hay meadow

F

185

PepT1 is a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the chief cells

F

186

PepT1 is an intestinal peptide transporter

T

187

PepT1 can only be used to transport amino acids and glycine

F

188

PepT1 uses a mechanism known as the Na pump

T

189

PepT1 is an energetically efficient method of amino acid absorption

T

190

Aminopeptidase

-brush border in small intestine
-hydrolyzes peptide bonds with any amino-terminal amino acid

191

Bile

-Liver
-forms micelles from lipids in the small intestine

192

carboxypeptidase

-pancreas
- hydrolyzes peptide bonds with any carboxyl-terminal amino acid

193

cholecystokinin

-crypts of lieberkuhn
-hormone that stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes, and gall bladder to contract

194

cholesterol esterase

-pancreas
-removes the fatty acid esterfied to cholesterol

195

chymotrypsin

-pancreas
-hydrolyzes peptide bonds with Phe, Tyr, Trp, His, Leu, Met

196

Dipeptidase

-brush border in the small intestine
-hydrolyzes small peptides containing 2 amino acids only

197

Elastase

-pancreas
-hydrolyzes peptide bonds with Ala, Fly, Ser

198

Enterokinase

-crypts of lieberkuhn
-required for the initial conversion of trypsinogen into trypsin

199

Gastric lipase

-chief cells
-hydrolyzes triglycerides into monoglycerides +2 free fatty acids in the stomach of a milk fed calf

200

Gastrin

-pylorus
-hormone that stimulates the chief and parietal cells in the stomach

201

HCl

-parietal cells
-required for the initial conversion of pepsinogen into pepsin

202

Oligopeptides

-brush border in small intestine
-hydrolyzes small peptides containing up to 8 amino acids

203

pancreatic lipase

-pancreas
-hydrolyzes triglycerides into monoglycerides + 2 free fatty acids

204

pepsin

chief cells
-Hydrolyzes peptide bonds with Phe, Tyr, Trp

205

Phospholipase A2

pancreas
-hydrolyzes lecithin and other phospholipids

206

Secretin

crypts of liberkuhn
-hormone that stimulates the pancreas to secrete buffers into small intestine

207

Tripeptidase

-brush border in small intestine
-hydrolyzes small peptides containing 3 amino acids

208

Trypsin

pancreas
-hydrolyzes peptide bonds with Arg, Lys

209

amino acid that contributes to the extensive cross-linking found in collagen

hydroxylysine

210

an imino acid

proline

211

build-up of uric acid in the joints

gout

212

nitrogenous compound used by rumen microbes to synthesize microbial protein

ammonia

213

derived amino acid

asparagine

214

differing in solubility in water

colloidal

215

form of secondary protein structure created by H bonding between amino acids

alpha helix

216

forms the primary structure in protein

peptide bond

217

having both a positive and a negative charge in the same molecule

zwitterion

218

having both acidic and basic areas in the same molecule

amphoteric

219

indispensable amino acid that is an intermediate in the urea cycle

arginine

220

indispensable amino acid used to synthesize cysteine

methionine

221

indispensable amino acid used to synthesize tyrosine

phenylalanine

222

insoluble amide that is primary N excretion product in birds

uric acid

223

methylated purine base

caffeine

224

non-protein amino acid that is an intermediate in the urea cycle

ornithine

225

non-protein amino acid that functions as a carrier for fatty acids into the mitochondria for B oxidation

carnitine

226

non-protein amino acid that is indispensable for cats

taurine

227

non-protein amino acid that may stimulate fast- twitch muscle hypertrophy

creatine

228

non-protein nitrogen compound often found in plant fertilizer that becomes toxic upon microbial metabolism in the rumen

nitrate

229

non-protein nitrogen compound formed by decarboxylation of an amino acid

amine

230

sulfur containing amino acid consisting of 2 cysteine linked by a s-s bond

cystine

231

water soluble amide synthesized from uric acid

allantoin

232

water soluble amide that is primary N excretion product in mammals

urea

233

a bile acid

taurocholic acid

234

aids in the formation of micelles in small intestine

bile

235

commercial product created using the process of oxidation

bleu cheese

236

commercial product created using the process of saponification

soap

237

component of a red blood cell membrane that determines blood type

glycolipids

238

contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas in the same molecule

amphipathic

239

drug that blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins

aspirin

240

esters of fatty acids with alcohols other than glycerol

waxes

241

esters of fatty acids with glycerol

glycerides

242

intermediate formed during incomplete hydrogenation of vegetable oils, associated with health concerns

trans fatty acids

243

lipoprotein formed inside the enterocyte during lipid absorption

chylomicron

244

major phospholipid found in myelin sheath

sphingomyelin

245

mechanism used for absorption of mixed micelles into an enterocyte

diffusion

246

mechanism used for absorption of chylomicrons into blood or lymph

exocytosis

247

name for a cerebroside found in brain tissue

gangliosides

248

name given to glycolipids found in animals

cerebrosides

249

phospholipid that contains choline

lecithin

250

precursor for the synthesis of prostaglandins

arachidonic acid

251

precursor of the synthesis of testosterone

cholesterol

252

process that results in a fat/oil becoming rancid

oxidation

253

process used to harden vegetable oil to make margarine or shortening

hydrogenation

254

small droplet of lipid formed in the small intestine upon the addition of bile

micelle

255

test used to determine how saturated/ unsaturated an unknown fat/ oil is

iodine number

256

test used to indicate the average length of the fatty acids in an unknown fat/oil

saponification number

257

transports bad cholesterol in the blood

low density lipoprotein

258

transports good cholesterol in blood

high density lipoprotein

259

saturated fatty acids are more common in ruminant derived foods than in those from non ruminants

T