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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (67):
1

Developmental Science

 

 

field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout life

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Theory

orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior

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Continuous vs discontinuous

continuous - process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with

discontinuous - a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times

 

Infants and children are discontinuous

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Assumptions of life span development

  • development is lifelong
  • multidimensional and multidirectional
  • highly plastic
  • affected by multiple interacting forces

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Age graded influence

events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how lon they last

ex license at 16, walk at 1

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history graded influence

explain why people born around the same time (cohort) tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times

ex baby boomers

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nonnormative influence

-events that are irregular. Happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timetable

-influence multidirectionality

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Social Learning Theory

-Bandura

-Emphasizes modeling also known as imitation or observational learnings as a powerful source of development

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Piaget's stages

-cognitive developmental theory

-sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

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information processing

-a human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

-a continuous stage

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ethology

-adapticve or servival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history

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sensitive period

-time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences,

-boundaries are less well defined than those of a critical period

-can occur later but is harder to induce

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Vygotsky's theory

-examined relationship of culturally specific beliefs and practices to development

-sociocultural theory - focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation.

-social interaction - cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community culture

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Ecological systems theory

-microsystem - innermost level of the environment, consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings

-mesosystem - encompasses connections between microsystems. academic progress determined by parent involvement. adults spouse effect on workplace

-exosystem - consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences and immediate settings. religion, community board, welfare services

-macrosystem - cultural values, laws, customs, resources. effects the individual

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clinical interview

-flexible, conversational style to probe for the participants point of view

-type of self report

-limitation is accuracy

-pro is that is is fast, lots of info and persons thoughts are expressed in the way that they think daily

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case study

brings together a wide range of information on one person includign interviews, observations, and test scores

-complete picture of person

-good for small sample sizes

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Randomization

-increase validity of the experiment

-unbiased procedure that will equally distributes the treatment groups

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Field Study

-investigators capitalize on opportuniteis to assign participants randomly ot treatment conditions in natural settings.

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Longitudinal study

-participants are studied repeatedly and changes are noted as they get older

-identify common patterns and differences.

-maybe effected by cohort effects

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Cross sectional study

-investigator studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point

-each participant measured once

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Sequential Study

-conduct several similar cross sectional or longitudinal studies

-

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Cohort Effect

-individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions. results based on one cohor may not apply to people developing at other times

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Mitosis and Meiosis

mitosis - DNA duplicates itself

allows for zygote to grow into a fetus. New cells have the same number of chromosomes

meiosis - creates gametes.

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Gametes, Autosomes

gametes - sex cells

autosomes - non sex chromosomes

sex chromosomes - 1 pair. XX female, XY male

zygote - sperm and ovum unite into a cell

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Dizygotic twins

-fraternal twins

-results from release and fertilization of two ova

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X Linked inheritance

-males are more likely to be effected because the chromosomes dont match

-hemophilia

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Incomplete dominance

- a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype. Results in a combined trait or one that is intermediate betweent the two

-sickle cell trait

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Genomic imprinting

-alleles are imprinted or chemically marked so that one pair member (either mother or father) is activated, regardless of its makeup

-fragile x syndrome - mental retardation, abnormal repitition of sequence of DNA on X chromosome

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Polygenetic inheritance

-many genes influence the characteristics in question

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Trisomy 21

down syndrome

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In vitro insemination

-hormones to women. remove ova, in dish with nutrients, add sperm, fertilized ovum injected into uterus

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Chorionic villus sampling

-chorionic villi are hair like projection on the membrane around the organism

-take a tissue sample of this in order to do genetic testing

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Direct/Indirect influence

direct - relatinship between child and parents/immediate family

indirect - relationship between parents. between people that surround the child

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SES (interactions with children)

-based on years of education, prestige of job and skills required, income

-

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Collectivist and Individualistic Societies

collectivist - part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals (Sweden)

individualistic - people think of tehmselves as seperate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs (USA)

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behavioral genetics

-Field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to its diveristy in human traits and abilities

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heritability

-measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors

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canalization

-tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes

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Passive/evocative/active correlation

passive - child has no control over environment they are exposed to

evocative - child evokes responses due to their genes. Happy child gets hugs

active - child has more freedom of choices (older age)

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epigenetics

development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment

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niche picking

-tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity

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amnion

-membrane that encloses the organism in the amniotic fluid

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neural tube

-primitive spinal cord. forms brain and spinal cord

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1, 2, 3 trimesters

1. zygote, blastocyst, primitive brain and spinal cord, heart, muscles, external strucutres, movement, sex is evident

2. continue to grow, fetal movement felt by mother, neurons in place, react to sound, sensitive to light

3. lungs mature, rapid brain development, fat under skin, fetus rotates

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lanugo

-little hairs on the fetus

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vernix

-white substance on the fetus. protect from chapping

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age of viability

between 22 and 26 weeks

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Stages of childbirth

  1. dilation and effacement of cervix
  2. transition - cervix open
  3. pushing
  4. birth of baby
  5. delivery of the placenta

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Stage theory

-qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving characterize specific periods of development

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Nature vs nurture. what drives them?

-genetics or environment more important

-environment is the physical and social world

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Plasticity - recovery from a stroke

-development is open to change in response to influentail experiences

-opposes stability - individuals who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages

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Life Span Perspective

ongoing process extending form conception to death, that is molded by a complex network of biological, psychological, nad social influences

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Resilience

the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development

- personal characteristics (mild temperef, personable)

-strong parental relationship

-social outside of family

-community resources

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Stanley Hall

- development as a maturation process, genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically.

-measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development

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Pavlov

Classical conditioning - associate a neutral stimulus paired with natural stimulus produces a relfexive response

-then neutral stimulus alone produces reflexive response

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John Watson

behaviorism - directly observable events, stimuli and responses are the appropriate focus of study

-Little Albert experiment

-paired a loud sound with a rabbit

-Then albert cried at just the rabbit

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Alfred Binet

- make an intelligence test

-used to find kids that needed special classes

-Called the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

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Modeling theories and conditioning

-psychoanalytic perspective - freud, how conflicts between bio and social expectations are resolved determines ability to learn, deal with anxiety, and be social

-psychosocial theory - Erikson, ego makes positive contribution to the development. Attitudes and skills attractive for society

behavorism - directly observable events - stimuli and responses are the appropriate focus of study. Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning - frequency of behavior can be increased or decreased using reinforcers and punishment

Social learning theory - Bandura, emphasizes modeling, imitation, observational learning as powerful

source of development

Cognitive developmental theory - children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

 

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Cognitive neuroscience

brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's congnitive processing and behavior patterns

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Types of research

-clinical interviews

-structured interviews, questionarres, tests

-case studies

-naturalistic observation

-structured observation

-ethnography - study a culture often uses participant observation

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Bronfenbrenner

-ecological systems theory - views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

micro, meso, exo, macrosystems

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Causation verus correlation

Causation - effects, cause and effect experiments that are highly controlled. Independent and dependent variables and controls

Correlation - relationship. gether information on individuals in natural life circumstances without altering their experiences.

-look at relationships between participants characteristics and their behavior or development

63

Chromosomal disorders

-down syndrome

-Triple X girls

-Klinefelter syndrome XXY

-Turner XO

-germ line disorders - red green colorblindness, hemophilia, Fragile X syndrome

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Ways to get pregnant

-donor insemination

-in vitro insemination

-surrogate mother

-naturally

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Highest poverty children in western world

Determining facotr in being homeless

US is highest child poverty rate in western world

-mental illness increases homelessness

66

Rich vs poor teenagers

High SES teens much more likely substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)

high demadns and anxiety and depression

67

Blastocyst

actually called placenta accreta

-placenta stuck to uterus. causes problems for mother