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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (64):
1

apgar

quickly assess condition of the newborn

1 min and 5 min after birth

heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color

0 - 10  7 < is good

2

kangaroo care

in countries where poor postnatal care

keep baby close to mother or father on chest

keep baby warm

gentle stimulation

improved survival rate

3

Infant and neonatal mortality

 

infant mortality - death within the first year

neonatal mortality - death within the first month

-unexpectedly high in the US due to poor maternal and paternal leave policies

-major causes of neonatal death are physical birth defects (consistant across SES and nationality) and low birthweight (higher in african american and native americans)

4

Toxemia

-preeclampsia

-high blood pressure

-swelling in the mother

-bed rest and low blood pressure medication

 

5

Rh factor incompatibility

mother Rh negative

baby Rh positive

fetus blood crosses to mother and mother makes antibodies

In future pregnancy the antibodies could enter Rh positive fetus

6

teratogens

environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

-dependent on dose, heredity, other negative influences, age

7

thalidomide

in canada and europe

used to treat morning sickness

lead to deformities and lack of limbs

diehtyl stilbestrol - mothers took to prevent miscarriages. children were less fertile and had reproductive cancers

-currently most common teratogen is accutane (acne)

8

Cocaine during pregnancy

-limits blood flow and oxygen for 15 min

Can effect neurons and chemicals in the brain

9

Smoking during pregnancy

low birth weight

10

Alcohol during pregnancy

- fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

-- fetal alcohol syndrome - effect physical appearance and functionality

--partial fetal alcoholl syndrome - fewer abnormalities

--alcohol related neurodevelopment disorder - only mental effects

11

folic acid

-folic acid supplements reduce neural tube deformaties by 70%

12

Growth spurts

- 50% greater height at one year than at birth

- 75% greater height at two years than at birth

-5 months weight double

-1 year weight triple to 22lbs

-2 years quadruple to 30lbs

-grow in spurts, may be very irratble the day before large growth. Not continuous

13

Growth trends

 

-fat and less muscle development

-asians slow, african americans fast

-skeletal age is used to determine physical maturity

 

14

cephalocaudal trend

head develops more rapidly than the rest of the body

largest proportion at birth

15

proximodistal trend

near to far

infancy and childhood - arms and legs grow ahead of the feet and hands

16

neural prunning

neurons not used are returned to the uncommitted state and future development can occur

40% of synapses are pruned

17

lobes

prefrontal cortex - develops to make synaptic connections

lateralization - left and right brain

--left - processing information, analytical

--right - emotion, holistic, integrated

18

brain plasticity

-high capacity for learning when synapses are not committed

-other parts can take over the task

19

experience - expectant brain growth

young brains rapid developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences, opportunites to explore the environment, interact with people, and hear language and other sounds

20

experience - dependent brain growth

occurs throughout our lives. consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures

21

Marasmus and Kwashiorkor

malnutrition diseases

22

language acquisition device

innate system contains universal grammar or rules that enables childrent to pick up on language they hear and speak as soon as they pick up the words

23

Attachment

strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress

 

24

ethologiacl theory of attachment

infants emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view

-preattachment phase - birth to 6 wks

-attachment in the making phase - 6wks to 8 months

-clear cut attachment phase - 8 months to 2yrs

-formation of a reciprocal relationship - 2yrs +

 

 

25

Internal working model

set of expectations allow child to understand attachment figures schedule

-serves as guide for future relationships

26

strange situation

8 episodes of events that tested attachment

baby in a room with caregiver. introduce new adult

 

27

secure attachment

infants use the parent as a secure base. when seperated may or may not cry

when parent returns, actively seek contact and crying is reduced

-highest prevalence in America

 

28

avoidant attachment

infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. when she leaves, they usually are not distressed they react to strangers much the same way as a parent

29

resistant attachment

before seperation, infants seek closeness to parents. fail to explore. distressed when parent leaves. upon return they cling. may continue to cry or be aggressive

30

disorganized attachment

greatest insecurity

at reunion, show confused and contradictory behaviors. dazed facial expressions

few cry out unexpectedly after calming down

31

nonorganic failure to thrive

child under 2 has poor/low growth but no physical reason why

32

Primary sexual characteristics

reproductive organs

33

secondary sexual characteristics

breasts, underarm and pubic hair

34

boys vs girls

boys mature later

early maturing boys are more confident than later maturing boys

early maturing girls - self conscious, prone to depression

Both drink, drugs, sex more if early maturing

Late maturing girls are more accepted

35

anabolic steroids

2% of seniors. mostly boys

36

functional age

actual competence and performance. NOT chronological age

37

ADL

activies of daily living

basic self care tasks required to live alone.

bathing, getting dressed, eating

38

IADL

Instrumental activities of daily living

shopping, cooking, housekeeping, paying bills

39

assistive technology

devices that permit people with disabilities to improve their functionality

 

40

compression of morbidity

desire to decrease the morbidity before death

-shorter end of life care

-shorter ill health and suffering

41

life expectancy crossover

around age 87, surviving members of the low SES ethnic minority groups live longer than the white majority.

-members of these groups only the biologically sturdiest survive that long

42

Over 85 mens vs woman

once 85, the life expectancy for males and females is about 1 year difference

at age 100 life expectancy is the same

43

Competency and Performance

performance - the actual act

competency - the psychological expectation and perception of an act

44

Secular Trend

Puberty is occuring earlier

45

Alzeimer

most common form of dementia. structural and chemical change in the brain. loss of thoughts and behavior

46

Dementia

set of diorders occuring almost entirely in old age. Aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted

47

amyloif plaques

dense deposits of deteriorated protein (amyloid) surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells

48

Neurofibrillary Tangles

inside the neuron, bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures

-contain abnormal forms of tau (a protein)

49

frailty

weakened functioning of diverse organs and body systems, yielding symptoms that interfere with everyday competence

-vulnerable to infection, hot and cold weather, injury

50

primary aging vs secondary aging

-primary - biological aging, genetically influenced. take place even in good health

-secondary - due to hereditary defects and negative environmental effects (diet, exercise, drugs, stress)

51

Arthritis

osteoarthritis - most common, deteriorating cartilage at ends of bones

rheumatoid - whole body, autoimmune response, causes inflammation

52

Type 2 diabetes

-not enough insulin, or body is insulin resistant

-causes host of other problems

53

Eye problems, elderly

-cataracts - cloudy areas in the lens resulting in foggy vision

macular degeneration - central vision blurs and gradually lost. light sensitive cells break down

54

sleep apnea

breathing ceases for 10 seconds or longer, results in many brief awakenings

55

prepared childbirth

natural

techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth rewarding

-classes

-relaxation and breathing

labor coach

56

isolette

enclosed preterm baby bed

57

Infant reflexes

  • eye blink
  • rooting
  • sucking
  • moro
  • plamar grasp
  • tonic neck
  • stepping
  • babinski

58

states of arousal

  • regular - full rest, little activity
  • REM - irregular - gentle limb movement, breathing irregular
    • much greater amount of time than adults
  • drowsiness - falling asleep or waking up
  • quiet alertness - inactive, eyes open and attentive
  • waking activity - frequent uncontrolled body movement. irregular breathing

59

visual acuity

  • fineness of discrimination
  • limited at birth

60

intermodal perception

make sense of light, sound, tactile, odor, and tast infomrtaion perceiving them as intergrated wholes

61

contrast sensitivity

-early pattern preferences

=difference in amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern

62

dynamic systems theory

-mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action

63

stages of grasping

prereaching

ulnar grasp

transfer hand to hand

pincer grasp

64

interactional synchrony

-seperate secure from insecure babies

-caregiver responds to infant signals in a wel timed, rhythmic fashion