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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77):
1

5 Core elements of community

Locus: Sense of place

Sharing: common interests and perspectives

Joint action: a sense of identity and cohesion

Social ties: interpersonal relationships

Diversity: social complexity; communities within communities (not ethnic distinctions)

2

Public Health vs Community health

PH: Programs and policy - guidance at "political" level (local, regional, national, international)

CH: Where prevention and intervention actually happen

3

Community assessment

A process of engaging the community in the collection, analysis, and interpretation

community participation is essential

4

How is the nursing process utilized in community health nursing

A: Collect data about the health of a community/pop

D: Analyze the assessment findings and prioritize the problems

P: Set goals and objectives

I: Utilize roles found in Minnesota wheel to promote health, prevent disease..

E: Did we meet our objectives? What next?

5

Why do we do a community assessment

- Gain deeper understanding
- Identify assets and key collaborators
- Determine priorities
- Engage stakeholders and gain support/trust
- Identify potential barriers
- Guide program interventions

6

Who should participate in a community assessment

Stakeholders (health and human services providers, government officials, businesses, influential people), nurses/nursing students, community

7

Components that should be included in a community assessment

1. Obtain data (gathering/generation)
2. Determine priority needs
3. Identify assets/resources
4. Define scope of project
5. Articulate expected outcomes

8

Public health

"What we do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy" (IOM)

"Science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities; achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting/responding to/preventing infectious disease" (CDC)

9

Public health nursing

Synthesis of nursing theory and public health theory applied to promoting and preserving health of populations
- Population based/community as a whole

10

Quad Council

1. Public health nursing section of the American Public Health Association
2. Association of State and Territorial Directors of PHN
3. Association of Community Health Nurse Educators
4. National Association of School Nurses

11

Components of population based practice

- Focus on entire population
- Grounded in ADPIE
- Considers broad determinants of health
- Emphasizes all levels of prevention
- Intervenes with communities, systems, individuals, families

12

Explain how the social ecological model and health impact pyramid serve as frameworks for working in public health

Social ecological model: 5 levels, can guide us to know who we can intervene with and at what different levels (Multi-level intervention has higher impact)

Health impact pyramid: to increase population impact, need to focus at the bottom of the pyramid, but important to work at multiple levels of the pyramid.
- Top: Clinical interventions and counseling/education (limited impact)
- 2nd: Long-lasting protective interventions (vaccines, etc. - need individual effort)
- 3rd: Changing the context to make individuals' default decisions healthy (Ie. vending machines with healthy foods in school)
- Bottom: Changing socioeconomic factors

13

3 core public health functions

Assessment
1. Monitor health status to ID community health problems
2. Dx and investigate health problems and health hazards in community

Policy Development
3. Inform, educate, empower people about health issues
4. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems
5. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community efforts

Assurance
6. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety
7. Link people to needed personal health services
8. Ensure a competent public health and personal health workforce
9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population based health services
10. research new insights and innovate solutions to health problems

14

List and define levels of prevention

Primary: prevention of initial occurrence of disease and illness
Vaccinations, good hand hygiene, wearing helmets, genetic counseling

Secondary: Early detection of diseases and treatments with goal of limiting severity and adverse events
- Screening, early recognition, early treatment

Tertiary: Maximization of recovery after an illness or injury
- Rehab, support groups, case management

15

Understand the objectives of screening

Primary: detection of a disease in its early stages in order to treat it and deter its progression

Secondary: Reduce cost of disease management by avoiding costly interventions required at later stages

16

Differentiate the types of screening

Mass: applied to entire population (eg. cholesterol screening at health fair)

Selective (targeted): performed for specific high-risk populations (e.g. TB skin tests for hospital employees)

Periodic: Screen a discrete but well subgroup of the population on a regular basis over time for predictable risk or problems (eg. cervical cancer screening)

17

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of screening

Advantages:
- Simplicity (for some screenings)
- Target individuals or groups
- Options of one-test or multiple-test screening
- Opportunity for health education

Disadvantages
- Not 100% accurate
- False positives and negatives

18

understand the limitations and implications of screening

False Positives
- Undue stress/worry/stigma, more invasive testing, unnecessary treatment

False Negative
- Engage in risky behavior because of false negative status
- lose opportunity for early intervention

19

Define sensitivity and specificity and how that relates to false positive and false negative results

Sensitivity: Ability of a test to correctly identify people who have the condition (True positives; poor sensitivity = increased false negatives)

Specificity: Ability of a test to correctly identify people who do not have the condition (True negatives; poor specificity = increased false positives)

20

Calculate sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity = TP/(TP+FN)
Aka: True positive test results/Total people who actually have the disease

Specificity = TN/(TN+FP)
aka: true negative test results/Total people who actually do not have the disease

21

Differentiate between population of interest and population at risk **Look up in notes

Population-of-interest:
A population essentially healthy but who could improve factors that promote or protect health.

Population-at-risk:
A population with a common identified risk factor or risk-exposure that poses a threat to health

22

Describe three levels of PH practice

Individual-focused:
- Changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices, and behaviors of individuals. Directed as individuals, alone, or as part of a family, class or group

Community-focused
- Changes in community norms, attitudes, awareness, practices, and behavior

Systems-focused
- Changes in organizations, policies, laws, and power structures. Often more effective and long-lasting way to impact population health

Exceptions:
- Case finding = individual level only
- Community organizing and coalition building cannot occur at the individual level, only at the community/system level

23

Explain the components within population based practice

- Focused on an entire population (at risk or of interest)
- Grounded in assessment of health status
- Considers broad determinants of health
- Emphasize all levels of prevention
- Intervenes with communities, systems, individuals, and families

24

Develop a basic understanding of how the Minnesota wheel was developed and is used in practice **Look up

- Grouped together by similarities
- Right side: primarily individual, families, groups
- left side: primarily systems and community
- Usually work in more than one wedge at a time

25

Surveillance

Describe and monitor health events through ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data

- Describe and monitor health events

26

Investigation

Systematically gather and analyze data regarding threats to health of population

- Gather and analyze data

27

Outreach

Locates populations of interest or risk and provide information

28

Screening

Identify individuals with unrecognized health risk factors or asymptomatic disease conditions

29

Case finding

Surveillance, Investigation, Outreach, or screening done at an individual level of practice

30

Referral and follow up

Assist individuals, families, groups, organizations, communities to identify and assess necessary resources

31

Case management

Optimizes self-care capabilities of individuals and families and capacity of systems and communities to coordinate and provide services

32

Delegated functions

Direct care tasks an RN carries out under authority of a health care practitioner as allowed by law

33

Health Teaching

Communicates facts, ideas, and skills that change knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of individuals, families, systems, and/or communities

34

Counseling

Establishes an interpersonal relationship with a community, a system, family, or individual intended to increase or enhance their capacity for self-care and coping.

- Increase/enhance capacity for self-care and coping

35

Collaboration

Commits two or more persons or organizations to achieve a common goal

36

Coalition building

promotes and develops alliances among organizations or constituencies for a common purpose. Linkages, solves problems, enhances local leadership

37

Community organizing

Helps community groups to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies to meet goals

38

Advocacy

Pleads someones cause or acts on someone's behalf, with a focus on developing the capacity or the community, system, or individual or family

39

Social marketing

Utilizes commercial marketing principles and technologies for programs designed to influence the knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices.

40

Policy development and enforcement

Places health issues on agendas. Results in laws, rules, regulation, ordinances, and policies. Compels others to comply with them.

41

Discuss the role of the nurse in the policy process

- Impact quality of life and universal access to care
- Capacity and responsibility to influence current and future healthcare delivery systems

42

Describe the role of professional health and nursing organizations as it relates to advocacy and policy

- Define and integrate appropriate standards for delivery of care
- Impact resource allocation to support delivery of healthcare

43

3 Basic principles of ethics

Autonomy: Agreement to respect another's right to self-determine a course of action (independent decision making)

Beneficence: compassion; taking positive action to help others; desire to do good (Core priniciple of patient advocacy

Non-maleficence: Avoidance of harm or hurt (core of medical oath and nursing ethics)

44

Social justice

Upholding concepts of fairness and equity; equal access to care

45

Code of Ethics Provision 1

Compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual

46

Code of Ethics Provision 2

Primary commitment is to the patient, whether individual, family, group, or community

47

Code of Ethics Provision 3

Protect the health, safety, and rights of the patient

48

Code of Ethics Provision 4

Responsible and accountable for individual nursing practice/determines the appropriate delegation of tasks for optimum care

49

Code of Ethics Provision 5

Same duty to self as to others (including preservation of integrity/safety, maintenance of competence, and continuation of personal and professional growth)

50

Code of Ethics Provision 6

Establish, maintain, and improve health care environments and conditions of employment through individual and collective action

51

Code of Ethics Provision 7

Participate in the advancement of the profession

52

Code of Ethics Provision 8

Collaborates with other health professionals and the public in promoting efforts to meet health needs

53

Code of Ethics Provision 9

Articulating nursing values, maintaining the integrity of the profession and its practice, and for shaping social policy

54

What is a logic model

- A depiction of a program showing what the program will do and what is to accomplish
- A series of "if-then" relationships that, if implemented as intended, lead to the desired outcomes
- The core of program planning and evaluation

"Inputs (program investment) --> outputs (activities/participation)--> outcomes (short, medium, long term)"

55

Program planning (Implementation)

What actions or changes will occur
Who will carry out these changes
By when they will take place and for how long
What resources are needed

Communication
Plan should be complete, clear, and current

56

Evaluation

"A systematic process to understand what a program does and how well the program does it"

Can be either formative or summative depending on the stage your program is in and what you want to know

6 steps:
1. Engage stakeholders
2. Identify program elements to monitor
3. Select key evaluation questions
4. Determine how the information will be gathered
5. Develop a data analysis and reporting plan
6. Ensure use and share lessons learned

57

Formative vs summative evaluation

Formative:
- Before program begins (needs assessment, to what extent is the need being met/what can be done to address this need?)
- New program (Process/implementation evaluation; is the program operating as planned?)

Summative:
- Established program (Outcome evaluation; is the program achieving its objectives?)
- Mature program (Impact evaluation; What predicted and unpredicted impacts has the program had?)

58

Observational - Cross-sectional studies

- Snapshot or cross section
- Example: BRFSS
- Used to help establish relationships, but unable to definitely establish cause and effect
- Important to have a representative sample
- Limitations?

59

Observational - cohort (prospective)

- Observational, analytical
- Study a population and look at exposure and outcomes
- Examples: Framingham Heart Study and Nurses study
- Requires a lot of participation to see correlations
- Allows determination of cause and effect
- Limitations?

60

Observational - Case-control (retrospective)

- Work backward from outcome to a suspected cause
- Compares a group with a health problem to another matched group that does not have the health problem
- Uncertainty about temporal relationship
- Limitations?

61

Observational - Case study

- Descriptive, observational
- In depth analysis of individual, group, or social institution
- Example: identified common risk factors with men who presented with Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia
- Limitations?

62

Experimental RCT

- Random allocation of experimental group vs control
- Time 1 measures baseline
- Time 2 measures outcomes

63

Experimental - Quasi

- No random allocation to groups
- Often used for 'natural experiments' (eg. mental health appointments after an earthquake)
- Sometimes used for pre/post after an intervention (eg. medical respite)

64

Causality/Causal inference

- Strength of association
- Consistency
- Biological plausibility
- Correct temporal sequence
- Dose-response relationship

65

Define and calculate Incidence

Number of new cases of a disease that occurs during a specific period in a population at risk for developing the disease

(accounts for men/women specific; ex. cervical vs prostate cancer)

66

Define and calculate Prevalence (point and period)

Number of affected persons in the population at a specific time divided by the number of persons in the population at that time.

Dose not take into account the duration of the disease or the population at risk

Period: How many people during a specific period (year, decade, month) - Every person in the numerator has/had the disease at some point during the period (ie. "have you had asthma during the last (n) years?")

Point: Do you "currently" have asthma

67

Crude mortality rate

Occurrence of death in entire population

68

Cause specific mortality rate

Total deaths from a stated cause per total population

Rate of deaths in total population from a specific cause

69

Age specific mortality rate

Number of people in a specific age group dying in 1 year per population of that age group

Rate of people in an age group who die

70

Proportional mortality rate

Number of deaths from a specific cause within a time period per total deaths in same time period

Proportion of deaths occurring because of a stated cause

71

Case fatality rate

Number of deaths from a specific disease per number of cases of the same disease

Rate of people with a certain disease who die

72

Define Epidemiology

"study of the distribution and determinants of the health related states in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems" CDC

73

relate epidemiology to CPHF & Minnesota wheel

Assessment:
- Ebola: Contact tracing finds new cases quickly so they can be isolated to stop further spread
- Find, respond, prevent

Policy development:
- Ebola: Unicef & CDC sent out Dos and Don'ts as well as facts about Ebola (Can't get it through air, water, or food; only bodily fluids)

Assurance:
- Ebola: new PPE Suit implemented

Surveillance, Investigation, Outreach, and Screening

74

Describe 3 epidemiologic conceptual models

1. Epi Triangle
- Host, Agent, Environment (Vector in center)

2. Wheel of causation (Social/Physical/Biologic Environment (Host (Genetic core)Host)Environments)

3. Web of causation
- Social barriers, Social influence, availability (?)

75

Describe natural history and spectrum of a disease

Pre-pathogenesis period
- Primary prevention (Health promotion & Specific protection)

Period of pathogenesis
- Secondary (early diagnosis/prompt treatment/disability limitation)
- Tertiary (rehab)

76

Understand the dynamics of communicable disease transmission

Agent
Reservoir
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
Host

77

Terminology of pathogenesis

Subclinical disease (time of expsure to onset of symptoms)
- Incubation period (communicable disease)
- Latency period (Chronic disease)
* No s/s, may be detectable with labs, xrays, or screening

Clinical disease
- Marked by onset of symptoms
- Spectrum of disease - range from mild to severe or fatal