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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (66):
1

autonomy

agreement to respect another's right to self-determine a course of action

2

beneficence

compassion, desire to do good, taking positive action to help others

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non-maleficence

avoidance of harm or hurt

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social justice

upholding concepts of fairness and equity, equal access to care

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senseitivity

ability of a test to correctly identify people who have the condition that is being tested for

6

Poor sensitivity leads to

increased false negatives

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specificity

ability of a test to correctly identify people who do not have the condition that is being tested for

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Poor specificity leads to

increased false positives

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Calculate sensitivity

TP/(TP+FN)

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Specificity

TN/(TN+FP)

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limitations/implications of screening

is it significant? can we actually detect it? is there benefit to knowing?

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Primary objective of screening

detection of a disease in its early stages in order to treat it and deter its progression

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Secondary objective of screening

reduce cost of disease management by avoiding costly interventions required at later stages

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Mass screening

applied to an entire population (ex: scoliosis screening in school)

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Selective (targeted) screening

performed for specific high-risk populations (TB skin tests for health care workers)

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Periodic

screen a discrete, but well, subgroup of the population on a regular basis over time for predictable risks or problems (ex: pap smear for cervical cancer)

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advantages of screening

simplicity, can target individuals or groups, options of multiple tests, opportunity for health education

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disadvantages of screening

Not 100% accurate

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Observational study

study doesn't alter what occurs; cross sectional surveys, cohort studies, case-control studies

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Experimental studies

researchers intervene to change reality and observe what happens; RCT, quasi experimental design

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mortality

people who die from ___ over total number of deaths in population

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case fatality

people who die from ___ of all those who have been diagnosed with ____

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Crude mortality rate

(Number of deaths occurring in 1 year/midyear population) X 100,000

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Cause specific mortality rate

(total deaths from a stated cause in one year/number of persons in the populations at midyear) X 100,000

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Age specific mortality rate

(Number of people in a specific age group dying in 1 year/midyear populations of a specific age group) X 1,000

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Proportional mortality rate

(Number of deaths from a specific cause within a time period/total deaths in same time period) X 100

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Case fatality rate

(Number of deaths from specific disease/number of cases of the same disease) X 100

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Prevelance rate

(# of cases [existing & new] of disease present in the population at a specified time period/# of persons in the population at that specified time) X 1,000

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Incidence rate

(# of new cases of a disease occurring in the population during a specified time period/# of persons at risk for developing the disease during that time period) X 100,000

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agent

any force causing disease

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reservoir

any environment in which a pathogen lives, grows, and multiplies

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portal of exit/entry

a mean by which an agent leaves/enters host

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Mode of transmission

method by which the agent is transferred from one host to another

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Host

susceptibility, immunity status; population at risk

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Epidemiological conceptual model

Host, agent, environment, vector

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Wheel of causation

deemphasizes the role of the agent and looks at biological, social, and physical environment

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Web of causation

strongly represents the idea that there are multiple aspects of causation; severely deemphasizes the role of agent

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assessment

monitoring and surveillance of local health problems and needs, and of resources for dealing with them

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policy

development and leadership emphasizes local needs, advocated for equitable distribution of public resources

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assurance

make sure high quality services are available and accessible to all persons

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Minnesota wheel

Surveillance (monitor), investigation (gather data), outreach (locate risky populations), screening (identify people)

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Define epidemiology

study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems

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What is the only aspect of the MW that is only at the individual level?

Case finding

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What is the only aspect of the MW that is only at the community/system level

Community organization and coalition building

45

Population based practice

focuses on the entire population, population at interest, or population at risk; grounded in assessment of populations health status

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What does population based practice consider and emphasize?

Considers broad determinants of health and emphasizes all levels of prevention (especially primary)

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What are the three levels of public health practice

individual-focued, community-focused, system-focused

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individual-focus

changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices, and behaviors of individuals; direct as individual, alone or as part of a family, class, or groups

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community-focused

changes in community norms, attitudes, awareness, practices, and behavior

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system-focused

changes in organizations, policies, laws, and power structures; often more effective and long lasting way to impact population health

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population of interest

group you want to know more about

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population at risk

group we know are at risk

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6 steps to conducting evaluation

engage stakeholders, identify program elements to monitor, select key evaluation questions, determine how the information will be gathered, develop a data analysis and reporting plan, ensure use and share lessons learned

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Formative evaluation

Evaluating before before a program begins and at the beginning of the program started; is it working as planned

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Summative evaluation

After program is either well established or its over; retrospective

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What is a logic model?

a depiction of a program showing what the program what the program will do and what it is to accomplish; IF-THEN relationships

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What is the core of program planning and evaluation?

Inputs, Outputs, and Outcomes

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Logic model input

program investments; what we invest

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Logic model outputs

activities (what we do) and participation (who we reach)

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Logic model outcomes

short, medium, long term (what results)

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What are quasi experiments good for?

natural disasters or pregnancy; you cant make these things happen

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Which type of study is most useful in examining rare diseases?

Case-control; compare differences of normal disease to normal person

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What type of study methodology is best able to examine cause and effect relationships?

Cohort study

64

Socio-ecological model guides us to

know who and at what levels we can impact

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public health

what we do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy

66

public health nursing

the synthesis of nursing theory and public health theory applied to promoting and preserving health of populations