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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (73):
1

Communication

Is about using messages to generate meanings

2

Environments

fields of experience that help them make sense of others behavior

3

Channel

used to describe the medium through which messages are explained

4

Mediated Communication

Sending messages via technological channels such as phones, email, and the internet

5

Content Dimension

involves the information being explicitly discussed "please pass the salt"

6

Relational Dimension

Expresses how you feel about another person

7

Interpersonal Communication

Interaction distinguished by the qualities of uniqueness, interdependence, self disclosure, and intrinsic rewards

8

Masspersonal Communication

Characterizes interaction that crosses boundaries between mass and interpersonal contexts

9

Communication Competence involves what two key terms?

Effectiveness and Appropriateness

10

Cognitive Complexity

The ability to construct a variety of different frameworks for viewing an issue

11

Self-monitoring

The process of paying close attention to one's own behavior and using these observations to shape it. Considering it from a detached viewpoint

12

Social Media

All the communication channels that allow community based input, interaction, content sharing, and collaboration

13

What are three characteristics of communication channels?

Richness
Leanness
Permanence

14

Hyperpersonal Communication

accelerating the discussion for personal topics and relational development beyond what normally happens in face to face interction

15

Asynchronous Communication

occurs when there is a time gap between when a message is sent and when it is received

16

Synchronous Communication

two way and occurs in real time

17

Disinhibition

The tendency to transmit messages without considering their consequences

18

Multimodality

the ability and willingness to use multiple channels of communication

19

Culture

the language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn

20

In-Groups vs. Out-Groups

In-groups: groups with whom we identify
Out-Groups: those we view as different

21

Co-culture

the perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture
Ex: age, sexual orientation

22

Intercultural communication

the process that occurs when members of two or more cultures or co-cultures exchange messages in a manner that is influenced by their different cultural perceptions

23

Salience

how much weight we attach to a particular person or phenomenon

24

High-Context Culture

relies heavily on subtle cues to maintain social harmony

25

Low-Context Culture

uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as directly as possible

26

Individualistic Culture

view their primary responsibility as helping themselves

27

Collectivistic Culture

feel loyalties and obligations to in-groups: extended family, the community, or organizations

28

Power Distance

the degree to which members of a society accept and unequal distribution of power

29

Uncertainty Avoidance

the levels of discomfort or threat people feel in response to ambiguous situations and how much they try to avoid them

30

Achievement Culture vs. Nurturing Culture

Achievement culture has a high value on material success whereas a nurturing culture values the support of relationships

31

Race

A construct originally created to explain differences between people by ancestry

32

Ethnicity

the degree to which a person identifies with a particular group, usually on the basis of nationality, culture, or some other unifying perspective

33

Intersectionality

the interplay of social categories, including gender, race, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and disability status

34

Code-switching

adapting a manner of speaking when changing contexts

35

Self Concept

the relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself

36

Self-esteem

the part of the self concept that involves evaluations f self-worth

37

At what age to people recognize the "self" as distinct from surroundings?

6-7 months

38

Reflected Appraisal

A mirroring of others judgments

39

Significant Others

a person whose evaluations are especially influential

40

Social Comparison

evaluating ourselves in comparison with others

41

Reference Groups

others against whom we evaluate our own characters

42

Obsolete Information

your past failures or successes do not determine your failure and success in the future

43

Distorted Feedback

Unrealistically negative or positive messages

44

Perfectionism

The naive belief in perfection

45

Social Expectations

The expectations of others put onto us

46

Self Fulfilling Prophecy

occurs when a persons expectations of an event, and her or his subsequent behavior based on those expectations make them more likely to occur

47

The four stages of self fulfilling prophecy are:

1. Holding an expectation
2. Behaving in accordance with that expectation
3. The expectation coming to pass
4. Reinforcing the original expectation

48

Impression Management

the communication strategies people use to influence how others view them

49

perceived self

the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination

50

presenting self

a public image - the way we want to appear to others

51

face

a socially approved identity

52

Facework

the verbal and nonverbal ways in which we act to maintain our own presenting image and the images of others

53

Social Penetration Model

describes the relationships in terms of breadth and depth of self-disclosure

54

What are the four windows in the Johari window? `

Open area - info of what you and the other person are aware of
Blind Area - you are unaware but the other person knows
Hidden Area - info you know but arent willing to let others know
Unknown - nobody knows

55

Privacy Management

the choices people make to reveal or conceal information about themselves

56

First-Order Realities

physically observable qualities of a thing or situation

57

Second-Order Realities

attaching meaning to first order realities

58

Intensity

Something that is louder larger, or brighter stands out

59

Repetition

Something that is there over and over again

60

Contrast or Change

Unchanging things or people are less noticeable

61

Organization

arranging it in some meaningful way

62

Four types of organization

Physical, Role Based, Interaction Based, Psychological

63

Punctuation

the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions

64

Interpretation

attaching meaning to sense data

65

Negotiation

the process by which communicators influence each others perceptions

66

Narratives

the stories we use to describe our personal worlds

67

Attribution

the process of attaching meaning to behavior

68

Stereotyping

exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorizing system

69

Primacy Effect

our tendency to pay more attention to things that happen first in a sequence

70

Halo effect

the tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic

71

Confirmation Bias

we tend to seek out and organize our impressions to support that opinion

72

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to give more weight to personal qualities than to the situation when making attributions

73

the self serving bias

when we perform poorly we usually blame external forces and when we perform well we credit ourselves rather than the situation