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Wellness is defined as a dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning _____________________

Achieving an optimum balance between internal and external environments


Propose an explanation on the basis of how an intervention with chiropractic such as adjustments may facilitate the patients progress toward achieving a higher level of funciton

The chiropractic adjustment will manage or correct or minimize subluxation resulting in the NS improved function resulting in improved homeostasis, health and wellness


Define innate intelligence and its significance to the chiropractic theory or history

Intrinsic biological ability of an organism to react physiologically to the changing conditions of internal and external environments

It applies to the first principle of chiropractic that states that the body is self-regulatory and self-healing organism


Define vis medicatrix naturae and its significance to the chiropractic

The healing power of nature

It also applies to the first principle of chiropractic that states the body is a self-regulatory and self-healing organism


The Council on Chiropractic Education (what is this agency’s current as well as historic significance?)

Made the 4 year curriculum standard in 1953
In 1974 the US office of education recognized the CCE as the official accrediting agency for all chiropractic colleges


What is the neurocalometer and its significance to chiropractic history?

A Hand held heat sensing instruments used to detect vertebral subluxations.

BJ insisted it was necessary for the chiropractor to detect subluxations and it also marked the beginning of the decline of BJ’s influence in the field


Wilk vs AMA anti trust suit charged what? And in what year?

Charged that the AMA and others had engaged in a conspiracy to monopolize healthcare and restrain competition by making voluntary professional associations between of medicine and doctors of chiropractic unethical



when did US district judge Susan Getzendanner find the AMA guilty? And what did she find them guilty of?

Guilty of an illegal effort to destroy the chiropractic profession through boycott


Paradigm statement if the association of chiropractic was in July of _______. What was its role in chiropractic history?


Sought to clarify professional common ground and to define chiropractic role with in the healthcare system


Who is Samuel reverend weed and what was his contribution to chiropractic?

A Presbyterian minister and patient of DD palmer who suggested the Greek terms Chiro and practika that DD would name the profession of chiropractic.


Who is shegataro morikubo and what was his contribution to chiropractic?

PSC graduate that was tried for practicing medicine without a license in 1907.

Was the first UCA case in providing legal services to DCs who were arrested for practicing medicine


Who is Chester Wilk and what is his significant contribution to the chiropractic?

Lead the fight against the AMA along with 4 other chiropractors

It was this lawsuit that represents the turning point in chiropractic since chiropractors would not be shut out of other medical professions.


Who is Sylvia alsworth? And what was her contribution to the chiropractic profession?

Graduate of PSC and mother of Ruth Alsworth

She’s the first woman to practice in the state of Nebraska and forerunnner to todays FCLB


What was Tom Morris’ defense argument in the Morikubo case?

Claimed that chiropractic has a separate and distinct philosophy and practice from that of medicine
Chiropractors do not diagnose but analyze the spine for the cause of dis-ease.


Who’s George Mc Andrews and what was his significant contribution in chiropractic?

Represented the 5 chiropractors in the Wilk vs AMA antitrust suit


Who is Harvey pillars and what is the significance to chiropractic

Janitor who received the first chiropractic adjustment by DD palmer in September 18 1895


Identify examples of ancient civilizations that embraces spinal manipulation as part of their culture

Chinese medicine (Chinese manipulative arts book by Pien chao)
India medicine (performed manipulation via baton attendants bc of hygiene)
Aesculapius (manipulated thoracic area of spine and DD refers to his teachings as a foundation for chiropractic)


What is the definition of bone setter

Lay practitioner of joint manipulation who’s tradition is passed down from generation to generation


How was bonesetting a fore runner to chiropractic?

Before DCs, DOs and PTs bonesetting was the main prover of joint manipulation


What were the 3 reasons why manipulation fell from medical practice?

Danger involved in manipulating a spine weakened through tuberculosis

Fear of contracting contagious disease from the patient

A perception that manual therapy was beneath the dignity of the medic of the day and should be left to the lay practitioner


What is the original theory that formed the basis of classical osteopathy in 1879?

Practic of osteopathic medicine in which manual manipulation is accorded a central therapeutic role


Lesion osteopaths are those who ___________________

Most closely adhere to manipulation and Still’s early tenets


Broad osteopaths are those aligned more ___________________

Strongly with drugs and surgery


What are the similarities of chiropractic and osteopathy?

Both focused on manipulation and maintaining the integrity of the spine
Both not confined to low back pain stiff necks and typical musculoskeletal complaints.
Both focuses on whole person
Neither considered their systems manual medicine


Chiropractic was reportedly founded by ___________. The first adjustment was performed on an african American male named _______ _______ purportedly on the date ________ ____ ______

D.D. Palmer

Harvey Lillard

September 18 1895


What was John Howards role in the chiropractic community?

Opened a school called National chiropractic college that offered physiological therapeutics (PT and ultrasound) incorporated into the straight approach to chiropractic

Caused BJ stress because it was not straight chiropractic. It would cause legal stress and insurance stresses


How did the straight/ mixer controversy add complexity to the struggle for state licensure?

Made it difficult to define the profession as an exception to the medical practice act. Since the mixer involved some medical practice and the straight didn’t


Straight chiropractors focused on ______________

While Mixers included __________

Focused almost exclusively on the vertebral subluxation and it annual adjustment

Used additional clinical practices such as adjuncts to adjusting the spine


The first state to be license was _______ in the year _______ and the final state to receive licensure was ________ in the year _______

Kansas 1913

Lousiana 1974


______ is the two pronged spinal heat sensing device supposedly detected subluxation better than a palpating DC