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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (34):
1

The Scientific Method

Make observations
Formulate a hypothesis
Devise a testable prediction
Conduct a critical experiment
Draw conclusions, make revisions

2

Cell Theory

Living organisms are made of 1 or more cells
All cells arise from other pre-existing cells

3

Scientific Theory

An explanatory hypothesis for natural phenomena that is exceptionally well-supported by empirical data

4

Nucleic acid

Macromolecule; Involved in information storage and transfer; DNA and RNA are both examples

5

Protein

Macromolecule; Chief building blocks of life; Made of amino acids

6

Carbohydrate

Macromolecule; The primary fuel for cellular activity; Forms much of the cell structure in all life; Sugars (ex: glycogen in animals, starch in plants)

7

Lipids

Macromolecule; Fats; Energy storage and insulation; Insoluble in water and greasy to the touch

8

Transport protein

In the plasma membrane, allows various types of molecules to enter cell

9

Receptor protein

In the plasma membrane, allows only specific things to enter cell

10

Covalent bond

Very strong bond, holds the oxygen to the hydrogen in a single molecule of water

11

Hydrogen bond

Weak, "flirty" bond, holds multiple water molecules together

12

Enzyme

Made of proteins, acts as a catalyst to speed up reactions by breaking things down; Their specific function is determined by their shape

13

Hormone

A chemical signal that responds to environmental variables

14

Cohesion

Water molecules stick to other water molecules

15

Adhesion

Water molecules stick to different water molecules, allows water to defy gravity when supplying nutrients to plants

16

Solvent

The liquid in which a substance is dissolved

17

Promoter

Part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene begins. Tells RNA polymerase where to START "unzipping" the DNA

18

Terminator

Part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene end. Tells RNA polymerase where to STOP "unzipping" the DNA

19

Ribosome

Connects amino acids into a polypeptide by catalyzing the formation of the covalent bonds

20

mRNA

The "product" of transcription, temporary copy of DNA

21

tRNA

Uses an anticodon that matches a specific codon to bring an amino acid to the ribosome to be connected into an amino acid chain (protein); bring amino acid to ribosome

22

Initiation

First step of transcription, promoter tells RNA where to start copying DNA

23

Elongation

Second step of transcription, the "unzipping" and copying of DNA

24

Termination

Third step of transcription, terminator tells RNA where to start copying DNA

25

RNA polymerase

Does the "unzipping" of DNA

26

Genotype

The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait. Influences phenotype

27

Phenotype

Physical traits, the expression of a genotype, the manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual

28

Dominant

An allele that masks the phenotypic affect of another allele

29

Recessive

An allele that is masked by the phenotypic affect of another allele

30

Law of Segregation

Mendel's law that states a gamete receives just one gene copy from each parent organism, which is selected randomly

31

Codominant

When two alleles are dominant at the same time with neither allele being dominant over the other. Ex: AB blood type

32

Incomplete dominance

When two alleles when an allele is not completely dominant or recessive over it's other allele. Ex: a red and a white flower breed a pink flower

33

Autosomal chromosome

Any chromosome that it not a sex-linked chromosome

34

Sex-linked chromosome

Genetic linkage with either an X or Y chromosome