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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (44)
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1

-a process
“it takes time.” To become global or transform marketing into a global environment to have to integrate the market

Globalization

2

“a result of the process” bringing markets together. The more you get together the more you know about each other which increases acceptability

convergence

3

unifying cultures” cultures coming together

cross-cultural

4

economic
financial
market
political
cultural

Types of globalization

5

o Combines “promotion” and “selling”
- They become interdependent as the marketer moves from market to market.

globalization of marketing

6

♣ Ex. A hedgehog know everything about one great thing a fox knows many things about many great things.
♣ Fox- when markets change they adapt
♣ Hedgehog- you know so much about the market to become the most efficient allowing you in turn to offer a product at the lowest possible price (very valued oriented, best product for the lowest price)

o Independent vs. non-independent economies (fox vs. hedgehog)

7

♣ Ex. L’Oreal has 4 different facial creams in china because there are 4 different climates that effect the skin in different ways.

o Multinational vs. global corporations

8

♣ Marketers must know what consumers need before the consumers know what they need
♣ “latent marketing” ex. Apple is creating products that we don’t even know about/ know we need

A new marketing concept

9

♣ customization is different areas have different needs so you have to modify the product for different locations

the global corporation vs. customization

10

♣ chemicals, steel, sugars, calculators, PC’s etc. (“sugar is sugar no matter where you go”)

products for homogeneous markets

11

♣ If you don’t have an attitude one will be formed, if you already have an attitude and it is adverse it will be changed.

cultural attitudes

12

♣ Acceptable behaviors
♣ Ex. Joining a frat it is expected that you will be hazed

cultual norms

13

"how people live"
♣ Holidays. Christmas is celebrated more by Americans than it is in Europe. Easter is celebrated more in Europe

cultural activités

14

o “I” reflects individualism
♣ Aristotle
♣ Does not wait for everyone to be on board
♣ Low context culture
♣ North western societies
o “we” reflects collectivism
♣ Plato
♣ “the whole is more important than the part”
♣ the interest of the group exceeds the interest of the individual
♣ south eastern hemisphere

I to we

15

♣ history and geography
♣ social institutions and the political economy

origins of culture

16

♣ Ex: Chinese people think china is the center of the universe which has effected their attitude on the way they think about china

cultures behaviors and attitudes

17

 Culture is not hereditary. It is learned in a formal(school) and informal (observing surroundings and others) way
 Learned through Family, education institutions, media, faith

culture is learned and shared

18

♣ the faster the culture evolves the greater the economic development
How culture affects management

cultures evolve

19

♣ Its is a threat because it means you buy local
♣ Ex: when GM was about the go bankrupt people bought their cars so they didn’t go out of business

o Ethnocentrism

20

♣ Affect consumption
♣ Ex: hummus is not allowed in Israeli during pass over

social norms

21

o A great way to test your product in a foreign market
o Ex; if you’re shipping something to brazil and the packaging is purple you will have to change the color because in brazil purple is a sad color

export marketing

22

o Power distance
♣ How people view hierarchy
o Uncertainty avoidance
♣ How people avoid risk
o Individualism vs. collectivism
o Masculinity vs femininity
♣ Men are more aggressive and wealth oriented
♣ Woman are relationship oriented

- The Hofstede Model (4 cultural dimensions)

23

♣ Agenda, want to know exactly what they’re doing
♣ Relationship, focus more on trust

agenda vs. relationship focused

24

♣ Expressive; Americans
♣ Reserved; Japanese (very silent and observational. Respond through facial expressions)

expressive vs reserved communication

25

♣ Language and culture are inseparable (ex. Italians can not talk without moving their hands)

linguistic

26

♣ Physical distance that people prefer to keep from each other (brazil people like to get close to you, Americans like personal space)

concept of space

27

♣ Do not judge others on your own standards
♣ Cultural differences in communication

self referencing

28

♣ Decision making varies in different cultures

consumer purchasing behavior

29

o Avoid cultural bias
o Develop cultural sensitivity
o Become acculturated

on cultural attitudes

30

♣ “a new Yorker going to Tennessee feels like they’re in another country”
♣ do you have the skill and understanding cultural communications?

culturally competent