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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (63)
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1

the major direct underlying cause of cardiovascular disease is due to what?

ischemia

2

what is released from the platelet that is a vasoconstrictor and potentiates the release of platelet granule contents?

thromboxane A2

3

a traumatized vessel will constrict; most of the constriction is due to what?

local myogenic spasm

4

what is effective at dissolving clots?

plasmin

5

when activated, what does a platelet do?

it swells, it releases granule, it secretes ADP and becomes spikey on the outside

6

what converts fibrinogen to fibrin

thrombin

7

heparin is what?

anti-coagulant

8

what is released from the endothelium that is a vasodilator and inhibits the release of platelet granule contents?


prostacyclin (PG12)

9

compared to a typical ventricular muscle cell, what are the characeristics of a SA node? (4)

1) only slow Ca++/Na+ channels are operational
2) no plateau
3) lacks a stable resting polarized state
4) has a less negative resting membrane potential

10

at a normal resting membrane potential of -85 mV, what ion is close to its Nernst equilibrium potential?

K+

11

at a normal resting membrane potential of +40 mV, what ion is close to its Nernst equilibrium potential?

Na+

12

a 2-3 elevation in extracellular potassium can cause flaccidity and weakness of cardiac muscle by decreasing the resting membrane potential. t/f

true

13

if end diastolic volume is 160 ml and end systolic volume is 120ml, what is the ejection fraction?

25%

14

if end diastolic volume is 200 ml and end systolic volume is 50 ml, what is the ejection fraction?

75%

15

what % of blood that moves from the atria to the ventricle is actively pumped?

25-30%

16

at rest if you block both divisions of the autonomic nervous system, what changes would occur?

H.R will increase and strength of contraction will decrease

17

at rest if you block only the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, what changes would occur?


the HR will increase and strength of contraction will remain unchanged

18

at rest if you block only the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, what changes would occur?

the HR will remain unchanged and the strength of contraction will decrease


19

during repolarization, what is the sequence of permeability changes in a typical ventricular cell?

Na+, Ca++ permeability decreasing,
K+ permeability increasing

20

during depolarization, what is the sequence of permeability changes in a typical ventricular cell?

Na+, Ca++ permeability increasing
, K+ permeability decreasing

21

what stenosis will create a diastolic murmur?

mitral and tricuspid open

22

what stenosis will create a systolic murmur?

aortic and pulmonary open

Stenosis; Open; Aortic, Pulmonary [SOAP] from there you can fill out all 4 brackets, its just opposits

23

what is an amino acid in the blood that may irritate blood vessels promoting atherosclerosis and ihgh levels in the blood can be reduced by increasing intake of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12?

homosysteine

24

if the left atrial pressure is 7mm Hg, the left ventricle is 105, and the aortic blood pressure is 100mm, what is the status of the valves?

Mitral closed
aortic open

25

if the left atrial pressure is 70mm Hg, the left ventricle is 65, and the aortic blood pressure is 100mm, what is the status of the valves?

mitral open
aortic closed


26

ACH binds to what receptor?

muscarinic

27

Norepinephrine binds to what receptor?

Beta

28

increased stretch on the ventricular fibers during filling have what effect on calcium influx into the ventricular cells?

increase

29

thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) have a positive inotorpic effect on the ventricle T/F?

inotropic = increased strength of contraction

true

30

when does coronary blood flow peak in the left coronary arterry supplying the left ventricle?

at the onset of diastole