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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (43)
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1

credited as the founder of psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

2

first American psychologist

Williams James

3

developed psychoanalytic therapy

Sigmund Freud

4

father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

5

researched operant conditioning

B. F. Skinner

6

created the Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow

7

developed theories regarding change in cognitive ability throughout life

Jean Piaget

8

Big 5 Measures

Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

9

what did stanley milgram research?

Shock Experiment-seeing how far people would go in obeying orders from an authority figure; see if it could compromise people's morality

10

what is the biopsychosocial model?

suggests that health/illness is determined by the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors

11

take cognitive processes and behaviors into account when providing psychotherapy

Cognitive behavioral therapists

12

is the DARE program effective?

no, essentially ineffective mostly due to the fact officers tell kids not to do something that will make them feel good because it is simply "bad"

13

Broad generalizations from specific observations

inductive reasoning

14

Starts with a general statement or hypothesis and examines possibilities to create a conclusion

deductive reasoning

15

behavior changes when people are observed

observer-expectancy effect

16

method of research using past records or data sets to answer various research questions, or to search for interesting patterns or relationships

archival research

17

graphical view of the strength and direction of correlations; the stronger the correlation, the closer the data points are to a straight line

scatterplot

18

people's expectations or beliefs influencing or determining their experience in a given situation

placebo

19

variable that is influenced or controlled by the experimenter; in a sound experimental study, it is the only important difference between the experimental and control group

independent variable

20

variable that the researcher measures to see how much effect the independent variable had

dependent variable

21

overall group of individuals that the researchers are interested in

population

22

subset of individuals selected from the larger population

sample

23

genetic makeup of an individual based on the genetic makeup (DNA) inherited from one's parents

Genotype

24

individual's observable physical characterics like hair color, height, build, etc

Phenotype

25

a tool used to predict how genes will interact in the production of offspring

Punnett Square

26

small gap between two neurons where communication occurs

synapse

27

scientific method

proposing hypothesis, conducting research, and creating or modifying theories based on results

28

why freud's theories have fallen out of favor

they are not falsifiable

29

why type of research did jane goodall do?

she conducted naturalistic observations on chimpanzee behavior

30

which type of studies are nonexperimental?

observations, surveys, archival research, scatterplots, and longitudinal research