Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (41)
Define a natural hazard
A natural, but extreme geological or meteorological event greatly exceeding human expectations in terms of magnitude or frequency and potentially causing significant material damage to humans and their property with possible loss of life
What is a natural disaster ?
A natural disaster is a major adverse event that affected humans resulting from geological or meteorological processes
Why is studying the science of natural hazards important ?
Science helps us predict/forecast natural disasters
Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, and hurricanes are normal processes that can be studied using the scientific method
Most hazardous events and processes can be monitored and mapped, and their future activity predicted, on the basis of frequency of past events, patterns in their occurrence, and types of precursor events
Consequences of hazards can be minimized. Minimizing the potential adverse consequences and effects of natural hazards requires an integrated approach that includes, scientific understanding, land-use planning and regulation, engineering, and proactive disaster preparedness
What is a hazard mitigation ?
Is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters
What are the five typical approaches to natural disasters ?
Accept the loss
Hazard warning systems and evacuation
Public use and abandonment of hazardous areas
How does population growth relate to disasters ?
An increase in population forces more people to live in hazardous places
What types of energy drive natural disasters ?
Gravity (including tides)
Natural radioactive decay
What is the plate tectonic theory ?
Concepts that the earth’s surface is divided into a few large, thick plates that are slowly moving and changing in size
Types of plate margins ?
How are plate boundaries recognized ?
Volcanoes and earthquakes
What are the driving mechanisms for plate tectonics ?
How much water do you need to prepare for a natural disaster ?
One gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home)
How many days worth of supplies should you have ?
7 days worth or enough to survive
What are some items that you should have in your kit ?
Water—one gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home)
Food—non-perishable, easy-to-prepare items (supply as above) / can opener
Battery-powered or hand-crank radio (NOAA Weather Radio, if possible)
First aid kit
Medications (7-day supply) and medical items
Sanitation and personal hygiene items
Cell phone with chargers (crank charger is good)
Family and emergency contact information
Map(s) of the area
Copies of personal documents (medication list, medical information, proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, insurance policies)
What is the best way to communicate with friends and family during or shortly after a disaster ?
What are two reasons that it is important to be prepared for a disaster ?
Preparedness is a principle part of the Emergency Management Cycle
Red Cross Ready Checklist
I know what emergencies or disasters are most likely to occur in my community.
I have a family disaster plan and have practiced it.
I have an emergency preparedness kit.
At least one member of my household is trained in first aid and CPR/AED (defibrillator).
I have taken action to help my community prepare.
Get a kit. Make a plan. Be Informed.
What are six common types/shapes of volcanoes ?
Composite or stratovolcano
What materials make up volcanoes ?
What are the differences in the shape of the different types ?
Large magma chamber
Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
What are important aspects of household preparedness ?
Make a plan
Two places to meet (home and farther away)
Emergency contact person
Describe a stratovolcano/composite volcano
Pyroclastic flow a dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing downslope at great speed
Explain a pyroclastic flow
A pyroclastic flow is a fast-moving current of hot gas, crystals and rock, which reaches speeds of up to 700 km/h (435 mph)
What is a caldera ?
Relatively viscous lava
Lava flows and pyroclastic flows (tuff)
Need some type of explosion
Explain a lava dome
High viscosity magmas
High violence, but small
How does volatile/gas content relate to explosivity ?
It can relate to a cork on a wine bottle, gas is trapped in bottled under pressure/ trapped under pressure in magma then popping the cork releases bubbly foam/ magma moves toward the surface decreasing pressure and releasing gas
What are the most common gases in magmas/emitted from volcanoes ?
Why is CO2 that builds up in a crater lake a problem ?
Suffocate people and livestock
How can it be mitigated ?
Pumps lift water from bottom of lake to top mixing the water
Explain the VEI
Volcanic explosivity index (0-8), used to relate eruptions, is based on how much material is ejected, to what height, and how long the eruption lasts