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1

Define a natural hazard

A natural, but extreme geological or meteorological event greatly exceeding human expectations in terms of magnitude or frequency and potentially causing significant material damage to humans and their property with possible loss of life

2

What is a natural disaster ?

A natural disaster is a major adverse event that affected humans resulting from geological or meteorological processes

3

Why is studying the science of natural hazards important ?

Science helps us predict/forecast natural disasters
Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, and hurricanes are normal processes that can be studied using the scientific method
Most hazardous events and processes can be monitored and mapped, and their future activity predicted, on the basis of frequency of past events, patterns in their occurrence, and types of precursor events
Consequences of hazards can be minimized. Minimizing the potential adverse consequences and effects of natural hazards requires an integrated approach that includes, scientific understanding, land-use planning and regulation, engineering, and proactive disaster preparedness

4

What is a hazard mitigation ?

Is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters

5

What are the five typical approaches to natural disasters ?

Accept the loss
Zoning regulations
Engineering solutions
Hazard warning systems and evacuation
Public use and abandonment of hazardous areas

6

How does population growth relate to disasters ?

An increase in population forces more people to live in hazardous places

7

What types of energy drive natural disasters ?

Sun
Gravity (including tides)
Natural radioactive decay
Impacts

8

What is the plate tectonic theory ?

Concepts that the earth’s surface is divided into a few large, thick plates that are slowly moving and changing in size

9

Types of plate margins ?

Convergent
Divergent
Conservative/transform

10

How are plate boundaries recognized ?

Volcanoes and earthquakes

11

What are the driving mechanisms for plate tectonics ?

Slab pull
Ridge push
Mantle convection

12

How much water do you need to prepare for a natural disaster ?

One gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home)

13

How many days worth of supplies should you have ?

7 days worth or enough to survive

14

What are some items that you should have in your kit ?

Water—one gallon per person, per day (3-day supply for evacuation, 2-week supply for home)
Food—non-perishable, easy-to-prepare items (supply as above) / can opener
Flashlight
Battery-powered or hand-crank radio (NOAA Weather Radio, if possible)
Extra batteries
First aid kit
Medications (7-day supply) and medical items
Multi-purpose tool
Sanitation and personal hygiene items
Cell phone with chargers (crank charger is good)
Family and emergency contact information
Extra cash
Emergency blanket
Map(s) of the area
Copies of personal documents (medication list, medical information, proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, insurance policies)

15

What is the best way to communicate with friends and family during or shortly after a disaster ?

Text

16

What are two reasons that it is important to be prepared for a disaster ?

Preparedness is a principle part of the Emergency Management Cycle
Red Cross Ready Checklist
I know what emergencies or disasters are most likely to occur in my community.
I have a family disaster plan and have practiced it.
I have an emergency preparedness kit.
At least one member of my household is trained in first aid and CPR/AED (defibrillator).
I have taken action to help my community prepare.
Get a kit. Make a plan. Be Informed.

17

What are six common types/shapes of volcanoes ?

Flood/plateau basalt
Shield volcano
Cinder cone
Composite or stratovolcano
Volcanic dome
Caldera

18

What materials make up volcanoes ?

Lava
Ash
Rock fragments

19

What are the differences in the shape of the different types ?

Large magma chamber
Bedrock
Conduit (pipe)
Base
Sill
Dike
Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
Flank
Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
Throat
Parasitic cone
Lava flow
Vent
Crater
Ash cloud

20

What are important aspects of household preparedness ?

Make a plan
Two places to meet (home and farther away)
Emergency contact person
practice evacuation

21

Describe a stratovolcano/composite volcano

Pyroclastic flow a dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing downslope at great speed

22

Explain a pyroclastic flow

A pyroclastic flow is a fast-moving current of hot gas, crystals and rock, which reaches speeds of up to 700 km/h (435 mph)

23

What is a caldera ?

Relatively viscous lava
Very violent
Lava flows and pyroclastic flows (tuff)
Need some type of explosion

24

Explain a lava dome

High viscosity magmas
High violence, but small

25

How does volatile/gas content relate to explosivity ?

It can relate to a cork on a wine bottle, gas is trapped in bottled under pressure/ trapped under pressure in magma then popping the cork releases bubbly foam/ magma moves toward the surface decreasing pressure and releasing gas

26

What are the most common gases in magmas/emitted from volcanoes ?

Steam
Carbon dioxide
Sulfur dioxide

27

Why is CO2 that builds up in a crater lake a problem ?

Suffocate people and livestock

28

How can it be mitigated ?

Remediation needed
Pumps lift water from bottom of lake to top mixing the water

29

Explain the VEI

Volcanic explosivity index (0-8), used to relate eruptions, is based on how much material is ejected, to what height, and how long the eruption lasts

30

What are some volcanic hazards ?

Acid
Rain