Exam 1-Cells Matrix, Ossification, Bone Density, Bone Variation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1-Cells Matrix, Ossification, Bone Density, Bone Variation Deck (25):
1

The four basic tissues of the human body

epithelial
muscle
neural
connective tissues

2

What is osetology?

the study of bone

3

The three primary cell types of bone

osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts

4

The function of each cell type

osteoblasts-form bone
osteocytes-maintain or nuture bone
osteoclasts-remodel bone

5

What are bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers, and various materials

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans dominate in bone?

chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfates and hyularonic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type I

9

What are the primary constituents of bone mineral?

calcium, phosphate, citrate and carbonate ions

10

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium, and radium

12

What is wolff's law as it pertain's to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors; boen is formed or absorbed in response to stress

13

What are the three responses of bone that allow it to be described as "living"?

ability to heal, to remodel, and to age

14

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

15

What is the timing for the apperance of intramembranous ossificaiton?

from the second to third month in utero

16

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

17

What is the timing for the apperance of endochondral ossification?

from the second to fifth month in utero

18

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossificaiton?

chondocranium

19

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

20

What are the names given to the center of ossificaiton based on time of apperance?

primary centers of ossification before birth

secondary centers of ossificaiton after birth

21

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous or trabecular bone

22

What is the name given to bone below the articular surface?

subchondral bone

23

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

the periosteum

24

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?

the endosteum

25

What is the primary source of variation observed in bone?

sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)