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What are the three major theories?

1. Biological
2. Psychological
3. Social


results of sequential switching on and off of certain genes with senescence defined as the point in time when age-associated functional deficits are manifested. People who endorse this theory are interested in studying genome and genetic theories of aging.

programmed longevity


theory of biological clocks acts through hormones to control the pace of aging

endocrine theory


programmed decline in immune system functions leads to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, aging, and eventual death

immunological theory


biological theory consists of these two theories:

programmed and error


cells and organs have vital parts that wear out after years of use

wear and tear theory


accumulation of crossed linked proteins resulting from the binding of glucose to protein causing various problems

cross link theory


theory that involves accumulated damage caused by oxygen radicals causes cells, and eventually organs lose function and organ reserve

free radical theory


theory of genetic mutations occur and accumulate with increasing age, causing cells to deteriorate and malfunction

somatic DNA damage theory


theory of human genome may be activated by certain enzymes and/or environmental conditions and may account for the influence of toxins, stress and lifestyle choices

emerging biological theories


theory that the shift focus goes from extroversion to introversion

jung's theory of individualism


theory that consists eight stages of life and for older adult?

erikson's developmental theory

integrity vs. despair; the older adult will become preoccupied with acceptance of eventual death without becoming morbid or obsessed with these thoughts. If major failures or disappointments have occurred in the older person’s life, this final stage may be despairing rather than accepting death. Older persons who have not achieved ego integrity may look back on their lives with dissatisfaction and feel unhappy, depressed, or angry over what they have done or failed to do. Psychological counseling can help to resolve some of these issues.


theory that an older person and society engage in a mutual and reciprocal withdrawal

disengagement theory


theory that older adults staying active and engaged to enjoy old age

activity theory


theory of aging that involves maintaining previous values and habits

continuity theory


The biological theory of aging uses a genetic perspective and suggests that aging is a programmed process in which:

a. each person will age exactly like those in the previous generation.

b. a biological clock ticks off a predetermined number of cell divisions.

c. genetic traits can overcome environmental influences.

d. age-related physical changes are controlled only by genetic factors.



The theory that identifies an unstable molecule as the causative factor in aging is the _____ theory.


free radical









The 80-year-old who teaches Sunday school every week and delivers food for Meals on Wheels is following _____ theory.


Newmans developmental


the life course


the activity


the disengagement



List the myths of aging

Myth: Being old means being sick

Myth: most older people are set in their ways and can’t learn new things or take up new activities.

Myth: Health promotion is wasted on older people.

Myth: Older adults do not pull their own weight and are a drain on societal resources.

Myth: Older people are isolated and lonely.

Myth: Older people have no interest in sex.


What is the Katz Index?

Progress toward independence that can be measured.
6 = High (independent) 0 = Low (very dependent)


What is QSEN?

to meet the challenge of preparing future nurses who will have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of the healthcare systems within which they work.


What is the average lifespan in the United States now?

Women-80.8 years
Men- 75.7 years


Who are the Baby boomers?

era of increased fertility; 1946-1964


Who is the ANCC?

bestows a lot of geriatric titles to nurses based on examination and experience.

Associate Degree (ADN) & Baccalaureate Degree (BSN)
o Required License: Registered nurse with 2 years of practice, 2000 hours of clinical practice, and 30 continuing education hours in the past 3 years
o Certification Eligibility: Gerontological Nurse
o Credential: RN-BC (RN, Board Certified)

Master’s Degree with APRN Specialization (MSN) & Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) with APRN Specialization
o Required License: RN licensure and completion of a minimum of 500 supervised clinical hours; completion of advanced pathophysiology, pharmacology, and health assessment courses
o Certification Eligibility: Adult-gerontological nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist
o Credential: AGNP-BC (Adult-Gerontological Nurse Practitioner, BC) or AGCNS-BC (Adult-Gerontological Clinical Nurse Specialist, BC)


Who is the ANA?

What is the scope of practice?

Responsible for defining the scope of practice and standards of nursing

Scope of Practice – range of nursing functions that are differentiated according to the level of practice, role of the nurse, and the work setting. (Three elements: quality, evidence, and safety); standards are defined as statements by which the quality of practice, service, or education can be judged.


Integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external evidence from systematic research.
It is good to be able to update outdated techniques to something safer and more helpful.

evidence based practice


What are the top 10 causes of death?

1. Heart Disease
2. Malignant Neoplasms
3. Cerebrovascular
4. Bronchitis / Emphysema / Asthma
5. Alzheimer’s Disease
6. Diabetes Mellitus
7. Influenza / Pneumonia
8. Nephritis / Nephrosis
9. Accidents
10. Septicemia


What are the top 10 causes of death?

1. Heart Disease (cardiac)
2. Malignant Neoplasms
3. Cerebrovascular
4. Bronchitis / Emphysema / Asthma
5. Alzheimer’s Disease
6. Diabetes Mellitus
7. Influenza / Pneumonia
8. Nephritis / Nephrosis
9. Accidents
10. Septicemia


term for the nurse understands and attends to the total context of the older person’s situation. Complex combination of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Example: if the older adult has dietary practices such as not mixing meat and dairy foods, food and beverage combinations that the older person prefers can be readily supplied.

cultural competence


nurse possess some basic knowledge and constructive attitudes toward the health traditions observed among the diverse cultural groups found in a practice setting

Cultural sensitivity