Exam 1 (Enzymes, Carbohydrates, Lipids) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1 (Enzymes, Carbohydrates, Lipids) Deck (196)
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1

What are the two uses of enzymes in the clinical lab:

*aid in dx
*used as reagents

2

Enzymes are usually only released when tissue is ______:

damaged

3

List the 6 categories of enzymes based on function:

*Oxidoreductases
*Transferases
*Hydrolases
*Lipases
*Isomerases
*Ligases
(Oh to have lived in Lisbon)

4

Many of the pathological conditions seen in the lab occur in what categories of enzymes:

the first 3
*oxidoreductases
*transferases
*hydrolases

5

Enzymes are measured in ____, which means:

IU
*one IU = amount of enzyme that will catalyze the transformation of 1 umol of substrate/min

6

What type of reaction is used for LDH and what is being measured:

*Coupled enzymatic (Urease, GLDH)
*Measures amount of conversion of NADH to NAD (340nm)
--so actually measuring the enzyme activity of LDH, its ability to convert nadh to nad--

7

Since ALKP can be increased in both bone or liver/biliary disease, what test can be used to distinguish:

5'-Nucleotidase
*will NOT be increased in bone disease

8

5'-Nucleotidase can distinguish bone from liver disease, it would be increased in which one:

Increased in liver disease

9

This enzyme is found in liver, intestine, bone, spleen, placenta, kidney:

Alk Phos

10

This enzyme would be present in higher values in children, adolescents, and pregant women:

Alk Phos

11

Very high values of Alk Phos would likely indicate:

Extrahepatic obstruction

12

This enzyme would be elevated in biliary tract obstruction, hepatocellular disease, bone disease, and hyperparathyroidism:

Alk Phos
(also ACP)

13

Alk Phos has isoenzymes that are specific to these:

Bone
Liver
Intestine
Placenta

14

Alk Phos isoenzymes are sensitive to these factors:

Storage temp
pH

15

Which ALKP isoenzyme is the only heat stable form:

Placenta

16

Which ALKP isoenzyme is heat labile:

Bone

17

How do you differentiate bone vs liver ALKP isoenzymes in the lab:

*heat inactivation (56 degrees for 10mins)
*If <20% activity = bone
**incubate with Nuraminidase

18

ALKP enzyme activity is highest in this pH:

alkaline

19

This enzyme is present in prostate, RBC, Liver, Kidney, Plts:

ACP

20

Optimal pH for ACP:

acidic

21

Is ACP as sensitive as PSA as a marker for prostate cancer:

No. It is not specific to just prostate.

22

T/F GGT can help differentiate between bone and liver dysfunction when ALKP is elevated:

True

23

In bone disease, ALKP will be ____, and GGT will be ____:

ALKP high
GGT normal

24

In obstruction, ALKP will be _____, and GGT will be __:

ALKP high
GGT high

25

In liver disease, ALKP will be ___, and GGT will be ____:

ALKP normal or slightly elevated
GGT elevated

26

Associate the alternative test method, Bowers-McComb, with this enzyme:

ALKP

27

This enzyme is most specific to liver:

ALT

28

ALT > AST =

viral hepatic disorders

29

When is the enzymatic kinetic method for ALT and AST called:

Method of Henry

30

What is the ALT:AST ratio called:

DeRritis Ratio