Exam 2 (Electrolytes, Acid-Base) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 (Electrolytes, Acid-Base) Deck (56):
1

List the 4 main electrolytes:

*Sodium
*Potassium
*Chloride
*Bicarbonate

2

List the 4 'other' electrolytes:

*Calcium
*Magnesium
*Phosphorous
*Lactate

3

_____ play a key role in maintaining electrolyte balance:

Kidneys

4

Water follows ____:

Sodium

5

Na and ____ move together:

Cl

6

___ and ___ aid in buffering blood:

K and H

7

Reabsorption of water depends on ______:

osmolality

8

These are defined as positive and negative charged ions found in ECF and ICF:

electrolytes

9

_____are negatively charged:

Anion

10

_____are positively charged:

Cations

11

What is the main cation in ECF:

Na

12

Na is exchanged for H here:

in renal tubules

13

This makes up 90% of all ECF cations:

Na

14

Variations in sodium levels can cause ____ and _____:

altered mental state
seizures

15

Hyponatremia is confirmed by ______ osmolality:

decreased

16

In hyponatremia, what two hormones will be released and why:

*aldosterone: kidney will reatin Na
*ADH: Kidney will conserve H20

17

In hypernatremia, what hormone is released and why:

ANP: promotes Na excretion

18

ANP would be released in this condition and why:

ANP released in hypernatremia to promote Na excretion

19

What is the major cation in ICF:

K

20

K concentration is ___x greater in the cell than out:

20 times greater

21

Only __% of total body potassium is in plasma:

2% (the rest is intracellular)

22

This electrolyte cation is important in cell metabolism and electrical activity of the body

Potassium

23

This cation has a reciprocal relationship with H+ ions, and helps maintain acid-base balance:

Potassium

24

Reference range for Na:

136 - 145 mmol/L

25

Reference range for K:

3.5 - 5.1 mmol/L

26

Is Na higher in ECF or ICF:

ECF
(K is higher in ICF)

27

This is regulated via renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and ATPase pump:

potassium

28

This is the major anion in ECF:

Cl-

29

The precise function of this ECF electrolyte is not well understood:

Cl-

30

This ECF anion helps buffer exchange of O2 and CO2 in RBC's:

Cl-

31

Cl is regulated via ____ and ____:

kidney and sweat glands

32

____passively follows Na:

Cl

33

Reference range for Cl:

98 - 107 mmol/L

34

____ and _____ rise and fall together:

Na and Cl

35

You would see_____ chloride in diabetes insipidus, dehydration, or salicylate toxicity:

hyperchloremia

36

CO2 from cellular metabolism diffuses from tissues into plasma/RBC's, forms carbonic acid, which then dissociates. HCO3- leaves cell and is replaced by Cl- to maintain electric neutrality:

Chloride shift

37

The reverse of the Chloride shift happens in the _____:

lungs
(CO2 leaves cell, HCO3- leaves plasma to replace it, causing Cl to leave to replace it to maintain neutrality)

38

What is the second biggest anion in ECF:

Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

39

What is increased/decreased levels of HCO3- called:

hyper/hypocapnea

40

HCO3- contains 90% of total _____:

CO2

41

Bicarb is converted to ___and ___ in the body and then ____:

CO2 and H20
expired

42

____ is an indirect measure of bicarb:

CO2

43

Compensated _____ _____ will cause hypercapnea:

respiratory alkalosis

44

Compensated ___ ____ will cause hypocapnea:

respiratory acidosis

45

Hypocapnea results from _____ respiratory rate:

increased
(breathing out CO2)

46

This is a measure of the difference in unmeasured anions and cations in blood:

Anion gap

47

List the anion gap equation and reference range (without K):

Na - (Cl + HCO3)
Range: 8-16

48

List the anion gap equation and reference range (with K):

(Na + K) - (Cl + HCO3)
Range: 12-20

49

Increased anion gap, think this:

Slumped

50

What does slumped stand for:

Salicylate intoxication
Lactic acidosis
Unmeasured anions
Methanol
Polyethylene Glycol
Ethanol
Diabetic ketoacidosis

51

This is regulated by Vitamin D, PTH, and Calcitonin:

Calcium

52

40% of calcium is bound to _____:

albumin

53

T/F Calcium exists in multiple forms in the body:

True.
(free, ionized)
(bound to albumin)
(complexed with anions)

54

What is the primary cause of hypercalcemia:

hyperparathyroidism

55

Very low levels of this electrolyte can cause tetany:

calcium

56

How does hypomagnaesmia affect the ATPase pump:;

Leads to decreased K