Exam #1: Falls Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #1: Falls Deck (17):
1

What are the intrinsic factors of falling?

These are age-related factors that predispose the patient to falling:
- Decreased vision
- Decreased contrast sensitivity
- Decreased hearing
- Gait changes

Also, all of the things that are related to the DEMENTIA mnemonic.

2

How can we address the intrinsic factors to prevent falling?

1) Increase light
2) Increase contrast
3) Exercise the prevent deconditioning & gait changes

3

What are the extrinsic factors of falling?

These are environmental factors that increase the risk of falls
- Loose rugs
- Slippery floors
- Uneven door thresholds
- Poor lighting
- Inappropriate bathroom fixtures & home furnishings

4

What drugs predispose a patient to falling?

Predominantly CNS affecting drugs

5

How should you consider a fall in the elderly?

Fall is a SYMPTOM, not a diagnosis; it deserves complete evaluation just as any other symptom

6

What are the major interventions that have been able to prevent falling?

1) Balance training
2) Lower extremity muscle strengthening

7

What is the most common/ serious consequence of falling?

Fracture

8

What can be done to prevent fractures s/p fall?

Addressing osteoporosis/ osteopenia

9

When do men & women need to have a DEXAscan?

Females= 60-65
Males= 70

10

Why is parathyroid hormone measured in relation to osteoporosis?

PTH= Ca++ balance

******Note that PTH causes Ca++ release from bone

11

What is a major cause of elevated PTH?

Vitamin D deficiency (normally, absorbs Ca++ from the gut--low absorption= mobilization from bone)

12

How much Ca++ should elderly patients have per day?

1,500 mg

13

How do you normalized Vitamin D?

Vitamin D3 supplementation

14

What medications can be used to build bone mass?

Antiresorptives= decrease osteoclast action on the bone--must stabilize PTH first*****
- Bisphosphanates--inconvenient/ poor compliance
- Prolia (better alternative, 1 IM injection Q6months)
- Forteo--best s/p fracture

15

What drug is recommended for long-term management of osteoporosis prevention?

Prolia

16

What drug is recommended for the acute management of osteoporosis s/p fracture?

Forteo

17

What is the best use for Calcitonin?

Pain management related to an osteoporotic fracture