Exam 1; Neoplasia III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1; Neoplasia III Deck (45):
1

This is the prototypic anti-apoptosis gene, found in low-grade lymphomas, these tumors grow relatively slowly because the cells do not die quickly - not because they are being stimulated to proliferate

BCL2

2

Even with multiple genetic abnormalities, tumors cannot exceed what measurements in diameter unless they are vascularized; sustained angiogenesis

1-2mm

3

Overexertion of BCL2 proteins cells from what

apoptosis, allowing them to survive for prolonged period

4

Angiogenesis facilities what

metastases; provides access to the vasculature

5

What are the two 2 major phases of invasion

invasion of the extracellular matrix
vascular dissemination and adhesion/homing of tumor cells

6

What are the four steps involving the invasion of the ECM

detachment of tumor cells from one another
attachment of tumor cells to matrix components
degradation of ECM
migration of tumor cells

7

Once in circulation, the tumor cells are vulnerable to what

destruction by the host immune cells

8

The distribution of tumor metastases can generally be predicted by what

the location of the primary tumor and its vascular or lymphatic drainage

9

Organ tropism is sometimes seen; for example, lung cancer often spreads to adrenal glands, but almost never involves the skeletal muscle, why?

organ-specific endothelial adhesion molecules bind tumor cell ligands
chemokine receptors on tumor cells home to sites where specific ligands are readily produced

10

This is critical to the integrity of genome and control of cellular growth; patients with inherited defects in this have an increased cancer risk

DNA repair

11

This is a familial concert of the color resulting from defective genes involved in DNA mismatch repair and evidence of micro satellite instability (MSI)

hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer syndrome

12

This is a defective nucleotide excision repair system; UV light causes pyrimidine cross-linking, halting replication; this puts patients at risk for skin cancer

xeroderma pigmentosum

13

Bloom syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia and fanconi anemia are characterized by what

hypersensitivty to DNA damage; increasing cancer and other health problems

14

These genes are involved with the repair of sDNA breaks and may also have tumor suppressor roles; involved in familial breast cancer

BRCA 1 and 2

15

Every human cancer has shown what

multiple genetic alterations and the loss of two or more cancer suppressor genes

16

What is meant by tumor progression and heterogeneity

tumors begin as a monoclonal proliferation of one transformed cell, as the daughter cells divide, they tend to develop more and more mutations; by the time the tumor mass has formed, they cells are quite heterogenous and more selected for survival

17

What is an example of a balanced translocation karyotypic change in the tumor

a translocation between chromosome 22 and 9, resulting in 22 looking shorter

18

This is the second most prevalent form of karyotypic abnormality in tumors - Rb, colon and oral cancers

deletions

19

This is form of karyotypic abnormality in tumors such as neuroblastoma and some breast cancers

gene amplifications

20

What are the three major classes of carcinogenic agents

chemicals
radiant energy
oncogenic virusis

21

How do some carcinogens react with DNA

directly, but most are indirect and require some metabolic conversion (pro carcinogens) active end products are termed ultimate carcinogens

22

All chemical carcinogens are what

highly reactive electrophiles, interacting with the electron rich DNA molecule and inducing genetic damage

23

Some carcinogens can be augmented by what

promoters (agents that have little inherent transforming ability)

24

The carcinogen is thought to serve as what

the initiator of a mutagenic event, while the promoter drives replication of the damaged cell

25

Latent periods for radiation exposure to the time of cancer development are what

7-12 years, relatively long

26

This is an RNA oncogeneic virus found in certain parts of Japan and the Caribbean

human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; causes leukemia

27

What are three examples of DNA oncogenic viruses

HPV
epstein-barr virus
hepatitis B virus

28

The concept of this refers to the recognition and destruction of non-self tumor cells when they appear

tumor immunity

29

These are antigens only associated with tumor cells

tumor-specific antigens

30

These are antigens that may be found on normal cells but may be overexposed or represent a specialized function of cells

tumor associated antigens

31

What are some examples of a tumor specific antigen

cancer testis antigen
MAGE-1 (melanoma)

32

What is an example of a tumor associated antigen

prostate specific antigen

33

What are the four methods in which the body kills tumor cells

cytotoxic T lymphocytes
NK cells
macrophages
humoral mechanisms

34

The strongest argument for this is the increased frequency of cancer observed in the immunocompromised

immunosurveillence

35

Most cancers develop in immune competent individuals. How?

selective outgrowth of the most antigen negative clones
loss or reduced expression of histocompatibility antigens
lack of co-stimulation
immunosuppression

36

Why is location a critical feature of neoplasia

benign tumors that are located in critical areas can be very serious

37

This seems to be more frequent with well-differentiated benign tumors

hormone production

38

This is when a tumor expands to the point of breaking through an epithelial surface, problems with bleeding and secondary infection arise

ulceration

39

This is seen in cancer patients and is characterized by progressive loss of body fat and lean body mass, accompanied by profound weakness, anorexia, and anemia; usually terminal, may involved TNF and IL-1

cachexia

40

What are paraneoplastic syndromes, which occur in 10-15% of cancer patients; examples include hypercalcemia, Cushing's, etc.

may represent an early manifestation of occult disease
may pose significant clinical problems for affected patients
may mimic metastatic disease and thereby confound treatment

41

This refers to an estimate of the aggressiveness of a cancer based on the microscopic appearance

grading

42

This describes the extent of the cancer; the size of the primary lesion, lymph node involvement, and metastatic spread

staging

43

This method is commonly used for SCC

TNM
tumor, node, metastases

44

Which is more valuable, grading or staging, when making a prognosis

staging

45

What are some examples of how to diagnose cancer

biopsy
electron microscopy
frozen section biopsy
fine needle aspiration biopsy
cytologic smears
immunocytochemistry
flow cytometry
biochemical assays
molecular diagnosis