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Flashcards in Exam #1: Part II Deck (59)
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Prior to 1850s, what was Paris like?

Paris was an overgrown medieval metropolis
-It was dark
-It was foul smelling
-It was unsanitary and disease ridden
-It was impossible to get around in


Who redesigned Paris and how?

Haussmann envisioned the new roads as arteries in an urban circulatory system
The new boulevards would enable traffic to flow through the city
The boulevards would provide breathing spaces
Stimulate business activity
Pacification of the masses desire for work
The boulevards had a militaristic value
Designed with movement in mind


What was London described as?

London … “a tumour, an elephantiasis sucking into its gorged system half the life and the blood and the bone of rural districts.”


What was Thomas Jefferson's view of London?

“The yellow fever will discourage the growth of great cities in our nation, and I view great cities as pestilential to the morals, the health, and the
liberties of man.”

"The mobs of great cities add just so much to the support of pure government, as sores do to the strength of the human body.”

“When we get piled upon one another in large cities, as in Europe, we shall become as corrupt as Europe.”


Who first found New Amsterdam (Manhattan)?

White men first saw Manhattan in 1524 (Giovanni Verrazzano and his crew working for the King of France). Verrazano left because he knew that this was not the Northwest passage
In 1526, Estaban Gomez (sailing for the Spanish) also found the bay but he was turned back by iceflows drifting downriver). He didn’t encounter Indians (it was winter) nor did he see gold or silver so he left.


Who was the first to land in New Amsterdam?

1609 Henry Hudson (sailing for the Dutch) sailed through the narrows and all the way up to Albany. He landed in New York. He was looking for the Northwest passage but he found furs instead.


When was Amsterdam landed on and why?

1609. Eighty Years' War, or Dutch War of Independence, (1568–1648)
12 Years Truce (1609-1621)


Why were merchants interested in New Amsterdam?

While the directors of the Dutch East India company were not impressed with Hudson’s findings/report a group of Amsterdam merchants were intrigued (by the prospects of a new source of revenue)

The Dutch had been buying furs from the Russians and it was costly (the Russian emperor demanded gold as payment and he charged duties whereas the North American Indians took all kinds of payments/exchanges [‘gullible savages’])


What happened in New Amsterdam between 1614 to 1626

1614, the Dutch established a year-round presence on the upper Hudson by founding Fort Nassau (later relocated and renamed Fort Orange)
But the Dutch knew that it need to settle and protect the mouth of the Hudson (security to guard the colony’s entrance)
Purchase of Manhattan from the Lenape
Creation of a small trading post in 1613
1625, fortification of the town of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam encouraged agricultural settlement to the east (on Long Island), to the North along the Hudson and the West (present day New Jersey)
1626, the first eleven African slaves arrived from Angola


Why was Manhattan such a great location?

Manhattan was 22 square miles
Good hunting grounds
It was a vast forest
Relatively mild climate (south of London, Paris, Rome, Amsterdam)
It was located next to an excellent river
Perhaps the best natural bay in the world
Mostly fog and ice free
The Harlem river could be crossed easily during low tide (not anymore)
The first permanent Dutch colonists reached New Netherland in 1623 (they were distributed widely to claim as much territory as possible)
It was planned by a military engineer


What was the bifurcation of policies that the Dutch used?

Bifurcation of policies
The Dutch used different ‘levels of aggression’ in developing their settlements. Why would there be different policies for New Amsterdam and for Fort Orange?
Upriver the strength of the Five Nations meant that the Dutch didn’t try to imposed themselves too much
Down river, the Algonquians were seen to be a nuisance (needed to be removed) [ethnocentricism]
Trade or farm (hence no missionary effort by the Dutch)
Missions were considered an unnecessary expense
Still, the Dutch West India Company struggle to make a profit


Why did New Amsterdam fail initially?

No one was willing to defend it
Confusion: were they traders or settlers?
Failure to build the population
Choice of leadership/bad government
Kieft sought to make war on all the Indians
Kieft the Corn Thief
Payment without exchange
Greedy, ignorant, alcoholic
Incompetent commercial management
Personal interest before company interest
No penalties for abuse of power
High tariffs which ruined legitimate trade
Heavy taxation
Failure to maintain the school, orphanage, almshouse
Immorality, drunkenness, games of chance


What terrorist attack happened in Manhattan?

The Year of Blood 1643
Governor William Kieft instigated numerous attacks around Manhattan and surrounding areas
A lethal attack in February 1643 by Mohawk warriors on Tappans and Wecquaesgeeks near Fort Orange (present-day Albany) caused them to flee to the environs of New Amsterdam.
The Dutch Governor Kieft ordered the refugees hacked to death or drowned by the Dutch soldiers on the night of February 25, 1643.
The next morning, there was a wild hunt through the city to slaughter the survivors.
The Algonquin tribes responded collectively by destroying Dutch settlements. Outlying farms and villages were burned, and the settlers who had not fled to New Amsterdam for protection were killed.
A peace treaty was signed in March 1643 ending Governor Kieft's War, but the colony was little more than a smoking ruin. Stuyvesant replaced him as the governor.


Who was Peter Stuyvesant and what impacts did he have on New Amsterdam?

Peter Stuyvesant (Dutch Director General 1647-1664)
Arrives in 1647
“I shall govern you as a father his children”
Soldier and ministers son
Made peace with the natives
Re-established a more equitable trading relationship
Created a regular police force
Instituted a number of reforms (drinking, outlawed knife fighting, fines for missing church, fornicating with the Indians)

Sought to give New Amsterdam a new economic bass – slaving
New Amsterdam quickly became more self-respecting (creation of a municipal government separate from company rule)
First act of this government was the creation of a wall
Despite such improvements, in comparison to the other English colonies to the north and south, New Netherlands suffered from a chronic labor shortage
Stuyvesant was forced to let almost anyone in even though they might upset the sense of order (too diverse to govern)
New York begins its rise to kind of global village
Stuyvesant complained but …
…the Dutch West India Company reminded him that he was running a business colony, not a religious establishment


Why did New Amsterdam become a new king of society?

“The consciences of men … ought to be free and unshackled, so long as they continue moderate peaceable, inoffensive and not hostile to government. Such have been the maxims of … toleration by which … this city has been governed; and the result has been, that the oppressed and persecuted from every country have found among us an asylum from distress. Follow in the same steps and you shall be blessed.”

New Amsterdam becomes a new kind of society, unlike any other in North America, accepting people of all faith (including Jews and those with no faith at all) and based on their willingness to work.

It was the Dutch that would give New York City much of its enduring character: an unswerving commitment to business and commerce, a willingness to take in almost anybody, and an openness to change


Why did the colonization of New Netherland ultimately fail for the Dutch?

There were other colonial alternatives
A smaller pool of potential emigrants with fewer incentives to emigrate
Basically there was a smaller PUSH factor
Thinly populated, New Netherland proved vulnerable when the Dutch and English fought
When three English war ships (and 300 soldiers) showed up in the 1664, Governor Stuyvesant surrendered
New Netherland became New York and Fort Orange became Albany


What was the Flushing Remonstrance of 1657?

Quaker religious teachings spread throughout the area surrounding New Amsterdam and threatened the dominance of the Dutch Reformed Church in New Netherland. Consequently, Peter Stuyvesant, forbade colonists from allowing Quaker meetings to be held in any home.
Flushing citizens protested, and in 1657 they wrote a demand for religious freedom
The Flushing Remonstrance is regarded as the precursor to the U.S. Constitution’s provision on freedom of religion on the Bill of Rights


Why was the Flushing Remonstrance remarkable?

Articulated a fundamental right that is as basic to American freedom as any we hold dear
The authors backed up their words with actions
People stood up for others (none of the signers was himself a Quaker)
The language of the remonstrance is as beautiful as the sentiments they express


What were the Articles of Capitulation?

These are terms of surrender that create the possibility of co-existence
Granted extraordinary rights to the Dutch settlers
Article 8: “The Dutch here shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in Divine Worship and church discipline.”
Article 3. “All people shall still continue free denizens and enjoy their lands, houses, goods, shipps, wheresoever they are within this country, and dispose of them as they please.”
Article 21: “That the town of Manhatans shall choose Deputies, and those Deputies shall have free voices in all public affairs, as much as any other Deputies.”
The document guarantees a number of rights and more than 120 years later we find a number of these rights in the Bill of Rights


What did the British gain when they took New Amsterdam from the Dutch and turned it into New York?

When the British captured New Amsterdam from the Dutch they basically gained the finest natural port in North America
Its magnificent location ensured that it would continue to be a site of capital (both commercial and political)


What did Washington's inaugration of the federal hall speech say about NYC?

“Here you have that feeling that you don’t have to be born wealthy to be admitted into the upper classes. You can make your way up through your own ability and I think that that is something that is very New York, I think that you could probably say that it goes back to the Dutch sense of equality.” Dr. Gehring


Who founded Philadelphia and why?

William Penn chose the site of Philadelphia in 1682 one hundred miles up the Delaware River where it joined the Schuylkill (“hidden creek”).
A settlement on the edge of an unexplored continent
Chosen as the place that was “the most considerable for merchandize, trade, and fishery in these parts.”
Penn (A Quaker) wanted Philadelphia to be more rural in nature ["a greene Country Towne, which will never be burnt, and allways be wholsome.”]
He implemented Thomas Holme’s grid system to separate land use and reduce congestion (green space for farming)


What was Philadelphia for Penn? What did he envision? Why was it different from the other colonies?

It was a holy experiment

Penn envisioned a place of refuge for the persecuted
A place for the spiritual union of all Christians
A place to live a/in peace with the Indians
Penn did not make provisions for city walls, fortifications, garrisons of soldiers
He wanted to avoid the factional politics that characterized European cities so he made no provisions for traditional institutions
This was a radically different vision for a city
It was the “most extensive experiment in city building that the colonies had yet witnessed.”


What was the result of Penn's "holy experiment?"

Penn’s ‘open door’ policy meant that hundreds of colonists would move into the new settlement (First Purchasers who bought tracts of Pennsylvania land)
Timing is Important – in comparison to other Atlantic colonies Philadelphia was founded late (lots of space on westbound ships)
Many of the new comers were interested in the commercial opportunities that the new town presented (especially the port)


What were Philadelphia's strengths?

Rich situation
A generous city lay out
Religious freedom (“Pennsylvania is heaven for farmers, paradise for artisans, and hell for officials and preachers)
Comparatively little government
Cheap land and private opportunity
Crowded but civil


What were the drawbacks to Philly's site, situation, settlement?

Located 200 miles farther from England than New York
Location upriver was treacherous (shoals, the river freezes, banks were steep)
New comers challenged Penn’s conception of the city
refused to spread out
Rejected his design for a green country town (gardens/orchards)
They were not ready for spiritual union
They struggled with Penn’s radical vision versus tradition bound expectation
“Like the Puritans of Massachusetts and Connecticut, the Quakers of Pennsylvania had proved unable to sustain the primacy of religion against the solvents of cheap land and private opportunity.” (Sam Bass Warner)

When Philadelphia was conferred city status in 1701 it really didn’t warrant it
It was isolated
No newspaper
The world of real cities seemed far away to its residents
It was really only linked to the West Indies for trade
Yet with 2,500 inhabitants, “it was too small to be called a city, too crowded to be labeled a ‘green country town,’ too contentious to be seen as a model of brotherly love.”
Her fortunes over the next 30 years would rise and fall with English power and prestige


What was Philly's fate intimately tied to?

(1) pacifist policies towards immigrants

(2) an accessible agricultural hinterland


What did the excess of people and products to Philly lead to?

Rise in trade with London and Bristol and with other places in Southern Europe and the West Indies
Raw materials, manufactured goods, human beings
Benjamin Franklin’s becomes postmaster (regular communication between Philly and New York)
Read: Philly becomes the communications center
Investments that made Philly even more attractive
Street lighting and paving
Sanitary improvements/a paid nightwatch (1751)/a hospital/a college/libraries
Leisure opportunities (the arts, theater, music, etc.)
Transportation improvements (stage line in 1755 to New York)
Communication and transportation improvements led to even more trade
Especially amongst America’s sister cities
Creation of the Great Philadelphia Wagon road
Facilitated the movement of settlers west
“A colonial interstate highway”
Philly looked both inward and outward


What was the Old London Coffee House (1754) and City Tavern/Merchants Coffee House (1773) important for Philly?

The merchants’ coffee houses/taverns were the center of the town’s communications systems
The place were merchants read newspapers, discussed prices, arranged for cargoes and insurance, dealt real estate, public auction of slaves, horses, etc.
They were the precursors of exchanges, banks and insurance companies
They were more than a gentlemen’s club


By 1776 what did Philly have? What was the result of this combination of features?

An undisputed commercial prominence
It was the cultural center of colonial America
Wide-ranging seaborne contacts
A polygot ethnic mix (social heterogeneity)
A vigorous press

A cradle for a nascent national consciousness
A strong voice against British policy making in North America
Notions of political reform and economic reform
The basis for hosting the Continental Congress
But also a city with a diversity of opinions on American autonomy
The hub of America’s revolutionary activity
Liberty would be proclaimed ‘thro’ all the Land and to all the ‘Inhabitants thereof’