Flashcards in Exam #1 Prep Deck (47):
Of the 5 major components of air, which is the only one to vary significantly in concentration from place to place and day to day?
What substance is not considered an air pollutant, N2, SO2, NO2, or O3?
The two main products of the combustion of gasoline in an auto engine are...
water and carbon dioxide
What is a diatomic molecule?
a molecule consisting of only two atoms (O2, N2, etc)
Which pollutant is present in air as PM?
Which color, in the Air Quality Index, warns that a pollutant is hazardous at the most dangerous level?
Which substance is an element, NO2, NaCl, N2, or CH4?
Ozone is considered an air pollutant in the _____, but is a valuable protective layer in the _______.
A ______ is a fixed number of atoms held together by chemical bonds in a certain spatial arrangement
What is the chemical symbol for silver?
Except in the case of hydrocarbons, when naming virtually all compounds made up to two elements, the second element mentioned _______.
ends in -ide
Which pollutant are you more likely to encounter in dangerous concentrations indoors rather than outdoors?
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
-long atmospheric lifetime, moves in and out of buildings easily through doors, vents, and windows
What is the balanced equation for the reaction of N2 and O2 to form NO?
N2 + O2 --> 2NO
All of these pollutants can be detected by odors except....
(CO, O3, SO2, NO2)
Catalytic converters reduce the amount of _____ in car exhaust
CO - catalyze combustion of CO to CO2
When assessing the risk of an air pollutant, which does NOT play a role in considering someone's exposure to the pollutant? (person's lung capacity, person's breathing rate, toxicity of pollutant, or concentration in air of pollutant)
toxicity of pollutant
Which is not a mixture? (jar filled with rocks and sand, sea water, glass of Kool-Aid, or Sodium Chloride)
What distinguishes the atoms of one element from another?
# of protons
Which region of the UV spectrum is absorbed least by the atmosphere?
Where is the "ozone layer" found?
in the stratosphere
Light behaves like...
both a particle and a wave
In the periodic table, which elements typically have similar properties?
those in the same columns
Isotopes have the same # of _______, but a different number of ________
Free radicals are ________
highly reactive chemical species, species with unpaired electrons (ex. H. or .OH)
WUKF FM transmits at 93.5 MHz. What is the wavelength?
Results of the Montreal Protocol include...
greatly reduced production of CFCs, increased production of alternatives to CFCs, recycling of CFCs
The Montreal Protocol is....
a treaty to reduce the amount of CFCs produced in the real world
What is special about the South Pole vs. the North Pole that leads to ozone depletion only at the South Pole?
Polar stratospheric clouds from almost exclusively at the South Pole
Stratospheric ozone is destroyed/formed at the same rate ______
above the equator and Antarctic in its early fall
Why does oxygen break apart at lower wavelengths than the ozone molecule?
average bond in oxygen is shorter and stronger than ozone
What are parts of the Chapman cycle in the stratosphere?
-ozone is removed by an interaction with UV radiation
-ozone reacts with oxygen atoms to form oxygen molecules
Which UV light is the most energetic?
Which product of the UV decomposition of CFCs acts as the catalyst for ozone decomposition?
UV-B radiation has a frequency of approximately 10^17 Hz, what is the energy?
6.63 x 10^-17 J
What is the relationship between stratospheric levels of atomic chlorine and ozone?
as chlorine increases, ozone decreases (inverse relationship)
Which step in the Chapman Cycle produces oxygen atoms?
absorption of light (wavelength equal to or less than 242nm) by oxygen molecules
Element sin the same column of the periodic table in the groups labeled A tend to have similar physical/chemical properties because they have the same # of ______
Mass number of an isotope of an element is the sum of the _____ and _______.
Chlorofluorocarbons rise in the stratosphere and ....
interact with UV energy to produce free radicals that destroy ozone
Increasing wavelength of light goes in this order...
UV --> visible --> IR
The atomic number is the ....
# of protons in the nucleus
In reference to waves, frequency is the ___________
# of waves passing a fixe point in one second
The goal of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 was to....
-reduce the amount of new production of CFCs in developed countries
-recycle existing CRCs rather than release them into the air
-encourage research into substitutes for CFCs
The speed of light in air....
is independent of the wavelength and frequency of light
Decreased stratospheric ozone concentrations may lead to ....
-increased incidents of melanomas
-harm to young marine life
-increased occurrence of cataracts