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1

The example at the beginning of the book, in which Raphael talks to his friend on a cell phone on his way to class, was used to illustrate how

a. cognitive psychologists study problem solving in adults.

b. complex but seemingly effortless human cognition is.

c. human cognition is affected by emotional events.

d. both physiology and behavior is important to the study of cognition.

The example at the beginning of the book, in which Raphael talks to his friend on a cell phone on his way to class, was used to illustrate how

b. complex but seemingly effortless human cognition is.

Ch. 1, p. 2

2

The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind is called

a. cognitive psychology.

b. introspection.

c. behaviorism.

d. memory consolidation

The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind is called

a. cognitive psychology.

Ch. 1, p. 5

3

Attention, perception, memory, and decision making are all different types of mental processes in which the mind engages. These are known as different types of

a. models.

b. cognition.

c. reaction times.

d. savings.

Attention, perception, memory, and decision making are all different types of mental processes in which the mind engages. These are known as different types of

b. cognition.

Ch. 1, p. 5

4

Donders' main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study

a. perception.

b. attention.

c. decision making.

d. memory.

Donders' main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study

c. decision making.

Ch. 1, p. 7

5

By comparing reaction times across different tasks, Donders was able to conclude how long the mind needs to perform a certain cognitive task. Donders interpreted the difference in reaction time between the simple and choice conditions of his experiment as indicating how long it took to

a. perceive the stimulus.

b. process the stimulus.

c. attend to the stimulus.

d. make a decision about the stimulus.

By comparing reaction times across different tasks, Donders was able to conclude how long the mind needs to perform a certain cognitive task. Donders interpreted the difference in reaction time between the simple and choice conditions of his experiment as indicating how long it took to

d. make a decision about the stimulus.

Ch. 1, p. 7

6

The main point of the Donders' reaction time experiments was to

a. show that reaction times can be measured accurately.

b. measure the amount of time it takes to make a decision.

c. determine differences in the way people react to stimuli.

d. show that our cognitions are often based on unconscious inferences.

The main point of the Donders' reaction time experiments was to

b. measure the amount of time it takes to make a decision.

Ch. 1, p. 7

7

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press a button upon presentation of a light, they were engaged in a

a. reaction time task.

b. simple reaction time task.

c. choice reaction time task.

d. presentation task.

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press a button upon presentation of a light, they were engaged in a

b. simple reaction time task.

Ch. 1, p. 7

8

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press one button if the light on the left was illuminated and another button if the light on the right was illuminated, they were engaged in a

a. reaction time task.

b. simple reaction time task.

c. choice reaction time task.

d. presentation task.

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press one button if the light on the left was illuminated and another button if the light on the right was illuminated, they were engaged in a

c. choice reaction time task.

Ch. 1, p. 7

9

Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person's response to it.

a. perception

b. mental awareness

c. disappearance

d. presentation

Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person's response to it.

d. presentation

Ch. 1, pp. 6-7

10

Donders' reaction time experiment was performed using stimuli in which of the following sensory modalities?

a. Touch

b. Hearing

c. Smell

d. Vision

Donders' reaction time experiment was performed using stimuli in which of the following sensory modalities?

d. Vision

Ch. 1, pp. 6-7

11

A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is

a. the presentation of positive reinforcers.

b. the measurement of behavior.

c. the inference of mental processes.

d. all of these are common features

A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is

b. the measurement of behavior.

Ch. 1, pp. 6, 10

12

Donders' measurement of reaction time is particularly important because it demonstrated the "time course" on which the mind operates. Donders found that it took ______ to decide which of two buttons to push in response to a stimulus.

a. 1/100 second

b. 1/10 second

c. a second

d. two seconds

Donders' measurement of reaction time is particularly important because it demonstrated the "time course" on which the mind operates. Donders found that it took ______ to decide which of two buttons to push in response to a stimulus.

b. 1/10 second

Ch. 1, p. 7

13

The first experiments in cognitive psychology were based on the idea that mental responses can be

a. measured directly.

b. inferred from the participant's behavior.

c. measured by comparing the presentation of the stimulus and the participant's response.

d. measured by comparing responses among different participants.

The first experiments in cognitive psychology were based on the idea that mental responses can be

b. inferred from the participant's behavior.

Ch. 1, p. 8

14

The relationship between the _____ is NOT measured directly by cognitive psychologists.

a. physiological response and the behavioral outcome

b. cognitive task and the behavioral outcome

c. cognitive task and the physiological response

d. cognitive task and the mental response

The relationship between the _____ is NOT measured directly by cognitive psychologists.

d. cognitive task and the mental response

Ch. 1, p. 8

15

Which of the following stimuli were used in Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiment discussed in your text?

a. Common words

b. Light illuminated on the left or the right of a computer screen

c. Grey rectangles in front of light rectangles

d. Three-letter nonsense words

Which of the following stimuli were used in Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiment discussed in your text?

d. Three-letter nonsense words

Ch. 1, p. 7

16

16. According to Ebbinghaus' savings curve, savings is a function of

a. word familiarity.

b. sensory modality.

c. retention interval.

d. reaction time.

16. According to Ebbinghaus' savings curve, savings is a function of

c. retention interval.

Ch. 1, p. 8

17

Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiments were important because they

a. described complex decision-making.

b. plotted functions that described the operation of the mind.

c. were the first to combine basic elements of experience called sensations.

d. showed how positive reinforcers strengthen behavior.

Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiments were important because they

b. plotted functions that described the operation of the mind.

Ch. 1, p. 8

18

The founder of the first laboratory of scientific psychology was

a. Franciscus Donders.

b. Hermann von Helmholtz.

c. Wilhelm Wundt.

d. Hermann Ebbinghaus.

The founder of the first laboratory of scientific psychology was

c. Wilhelm Wundt.

Ch. 1, p. 8

19

Which of the following methods, often associated with structuralism, was used in the psychology laboratory established by Wilhelm Wundt?

a. Analytic introspection

b. Measuring reaction times

c. Conditioning

d. All of these were used in Wundt?s laboratory

Which of the following methods, often associated with structuralism, was used in the psychology laboratory established by Wilhelm Wundt?

a. Analytic introspection

Ch. 1, pp. 8-9

20

The procedure in which trained participants describe their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli presented under controlled conditions is known as

a. information processing.

b. analytic introspection.

c. functional analysis.

d. behavioral analysis.

The procedure in which trained participants describe their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli presented under controlled conditions is known as

b. analytic introspection.

Ch. 1, p. 8

21

An important contribution to the field of psychology resulting from Wilhelm Wundt founding his laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879 was

a. the rise of behaviorism?s popularity.

b. recognizing 1879 as "the birthday of cognitive science."

c. producing Ph.D.s who later established psychology departments at many U.S. universities.

d. the first demonstration of the forgetting curve.

An important contribution to the field of psychology resulting from Wilhelm Wundt founding his laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879 was

c. producing Ph.D.s who later established psychology departments at many U.S. universities.

Ch. 1, p. 9

22

Which of the following is a criticism of analytic introspection?

a. It infers mental processes based on objective data.

b. It produces results that are too easy to verify.

c. It produces variable results from person to person.

d. It requires no training.

Which of the following is a criticism of analytic introspection?

c. It produces variable results from person to person.

Ch. 1, p. 9

23

John Watson believed that psychology should focus on the study of

a. observable behavior.

b. mental processes.

c. consciousness.

d. attention.

John Watson believed that psychology should focus on the study of

a. observable behavior.

Ch. 1, p. 10

24

Which of the following was considered positive by the behaviorists?

a. Observable behavior

b. Consciousness

c. Introspection

d. The mind

Which of the following was considered positive by the behaviorists?

a. Observable behavior

Ch. 1, p. 10

25

The "Little Albert" experiment involving the rat and the loud noise is an example of which of the following types of experiments?

a. Reaction time

b. Unconscious inference

c. Classical conditioning

d. Operant conditioning

The "Little Albert" experiment involving the rat and the loud noise is an example of which of the following types of experiments?

c. Classical conditioning

Ch. 1, p. 10

26

Behaviorists believe that the presentation of_______ increases the frequency of behavior.

a. positive reinforcers

b. negative reinforcers

c. practice trials

d. excitatory neurotransmitters

Behaviorists believe that the presentation of_______ increases the frequency of behavior.

a. positive reinforcers

Ch. 1, p. 10

27

Which of the following psychologists is known for research on operant conditioning?

a. Franciscus Donders

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. John Watson

d. B.F. Skinner

Which of the following psychologists is known for research on operant conditioning?

d. B.F. Skinner

Ch. 1, p. 10

28

The investigation of how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforcers (e.g., food) or withdrawal of negative reinforcers (e.g., shock) is best known as

a. classical conditioning.

b. the method of savings.

c. choice reaction time.

d. operant conditioning.

The investigation of how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforcers (e.g., food) or withdrawal of negative reinforcers (e.g., shock) is best known as

d. operant conditioning.

Ch. 1, p. 10

29

Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?

a. Watson

b. Ebbinghaus

c. Wundt

d. Tolman

Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?

d. Tolman

Ch. 1, p. 11

30

A mental conception of the layout of a physical space is known as a(n)

a. cognitive map.

b. mental model.

c. artificial intelligence.

d. memory consolidation.

A mental conception of the layout of a physical space is known as a(n)

a. cognitive map.

Ch. 1, p. 11