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Flashcards in Exam 1 - Principles of Pharm Deck (48):
1

penetration of HIGH molecular weights through membranes is MOST dependent on what process

active transport

2

for IM/SQ injection you want ____ soluble drugs

water

3

POLAR groups added to lipid soluble drugs by hepatic enzymes during phase 1 and 2 rxns to prevent _________ and promote ______

prevent passive reabsorption and promote renal excretion

4

st johns wort is a major CYP3A4 _____

inducer

5

_____ is a major CYP inhibitor

grapefruit juice

6

to get to the tissues a drug needs a _____ Vd

HIGH

7

a drug will be concentrated in the plasma if it has a ____ Vd

LOW

8

a HIGH Vd indicates that a drug is ___ and ____

lipophilic and nonpolar

9

in a multiple dosing regimen, the TIME to reach a steady state conc depends on ___

half life

10

in a multiple dosing regimen the CONCENTRATION at steady state depends primarily on ____ and ____

dose and dosing interval

11

ULTIMATE factor that determines the intensity of a drug response is

drug concentration at receptor site

12

the generic and brand name of a drug are _____ but not always _____

chemically equivalent (same dose and active ingredient) but not always bioequivalent (rate and extent of absorption)

13

most drugs penetrate the phospholipid bilayer via ____ (must be ____)

passive diffusion (must be lipid soluble)

14

5 factors affecting absorption

1. rate of dissolution (formulation)
2. surface area
3. blood flow
4. lipid solubility
5. pH partitioning

15

ions have a charge and cannot

cross the membrane

16

IV administration has ___ barrier to absorption

NO

17

with IM/SQ admin the only barrier to absorption is

capillary wall

18

IM/SQ had more rapid absorption for ____ drugs

water soluble

19

_____ determines rate of distribution

blood flow

20

acids are proton

donors

21

bases are proton

acceptors

22

acids ionize in ___ media

basic

23

bases ionize in ___ media

acidic

24

PO drugs usually absorb from the ____ not the stomach

SI

25

protein binding ___ half life

INC

26

only ___ are dist to the tissues

unbound

27

two highly bound drugs in the blood stream results in

drug interactions

28

first pass effect is bypassed by admin drugs ___

parenterally

29

decreased protein binding will ____ the effect of a highly bound drug

INC (bc free drug in plasma will inc)

30

metabolism mostly occurs in the

liver (P450 enzyme system)

31

____ is the most abundant and responsible for 60% of metabolism

CYP3A4

32

____ are poor metabolizers

asians

33

___ are ultra metabolizers

ethiopians

34

____ metabolizes codeine to morphine

CYP2D6

35

____ inc metabolism and dec efficacy

inducers

36

____ dec metabolism and inc efficacy

inhibitors

37

passive tubular reabsorption is when

lipid soluble drugs follow the conc gradient back into the blood but ionized and polar ones remain in the tubule for excretion

38

with glomerular filtration, albumin bound drugs do not

move Into the filtrate

39

use a loading dose for drugs with a ___ half life

long

40

clearance is affected by what three things

1. rate of elimination
2. plasma drug conc
3. affected by blood flow to kidney, liver, heart

41

a drug with a longer half life will take longer to reach

steady state

42

bioavailability is greatest with ___ admin

IV (least with PO)

43

with first order elimination half life is ____ and ____ is predictable

half life is constant and drug conc is predictable

44

with zero order elimination the rate of elimination is ____ but independent of _____

rate of elimination is constant but independent of drug conc (which is unpredictable)

45

3 drugs that follow zero order elimination

aspirin, phenytoin, ethanol

46

a higher ED50 = ___ potency

DEC (a higher ed50 means you need more drug to achieve the effect)

47

drug accumulation due to ______ is the most important cause of ADR in older adults

DEC renal excretion

48

in older adults we use _____ to determine renal fx

crt clearance