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Flashcards in Exam 1 review Deck (20):
1

Identify the normal electrical power source of the heart

Pacemaker cells in SA node

2

Differentiate the physiology of a pacemaker action potential from a cardiomyocyte action potential

Pacemaker=spontaneous
Cardiomyocyte=nonspontaneous

3

Recall the typical rates of depolarization of pacemaker cells in the sinus node (SA node), the atrioventricular node (AV node) and the ventricles

SA node=60-100
AV node=40-60
Ventricles=20-40

4

Recognize what the following wave forms represent on a cycle of cardiac contraction and relaxation within the EKG
a. P wave
b. Q wave
c. QRS complex
d. T wave

P-wave=both atria depolarize
Q-wave=septal depolarize
QRS-complex=ventricles depolarize
T-wave=ventricles repolarize

5

Recognize the following conditions either by analyzing an EKG/rhythm strip or by description
a. ST elevation myocardial infarction
b. Cardiac ischemia
c. Right, left and biatrial enlargement

STEMI=1mm height in limb leads, 2mm height in precordial leads
Ischemia=ST depression
RA enlargement=enlarged P wave
LA enlargement=wide P wave, notched
biartial enlargement=shark fin

6

Recall which leads correspond to each of the following areas of the heart
a. Anterior
b. Inferior
c. Left lateral
d. Right ventricular

Anterior=V2, V3, V4
Inferior=II, III, aVF
Left Lateral=I, aVL, V5, V6
Right Vent=aVR, V1

7

Recall how many seconds one small square represents on EKG paper

0.04 sec

8

Recall how many seconds one large square represents on EKG paper

0.20 sec
5 small squares long and high

9

Prolonged PR boxes and time?

>0.2 sec
>1 big box
Type of heart block!

10

Prolonged QT? Normal is ___ between QRS complexes

Normal <1/2 between two QRS complexes. 40% of cardiac cycle. Inversely proportial to heart rate.

11

Pathologic Q wave means? Measurement?

Irreversible myocardial damage.
≥1/3 height of R wave

12

Poor R wave progression means what is enlarged?

RV.

13

R Wave progression defined as

Pattern of progressively increasing R wave amplitude moving right to left in the precordial leads

14

List the 5 criteria for normal sinus rhythm

1. P wave before every QRS
2. Regular rhythm
3. Rate between 60-100bpm
4. Normal PR int (0.12-0.2)
5. Normal QT-int (<1/2 way between two QRS complexes)

15

Wide QRS defined? Due to?

Impulses generated in ventricles or abberant pathway through ventricles
>0.1 sec=wide

16

Normal QRS time?

0.06-0.1sec

17

Identify if an EKG shows right axis deviation

Lead I=down
aVF=up

18

Identify if an EKG shows left axis deviation

Lead I=up
aVF=down

19

Recall the criteria for right ventricular hypertrophy

R>S in V1
S>R in V6
Poor R wave progression
R axis deviation (I=down, aVF=up)

20

Recall the criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy

R amplitude in V5 or V6 + S in V1 or V2=7 boxes = >35mm tall