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The 7 Objections to the Federal Definition of LD

1. Reference to psychological processes.
2. Omission of the intrinsic nature of LDs.
3. Omission of adults.
4. Omission of self-regulation and social interaction problems.
5. Inclusion of terms difficult to define.
6. Confusion about the exclusion cause.
7. Inclusion of spelling.


Two Ways to Identify LD

1. Achievement-Ability Discrepancy
2. RTI (Federally favored)


Achievement-Ability Discrepancy

A student achieving well below his/her potential.

Most states relied on IQ-achievement discrepancy.


Problems with Achievement-Ability Discrepancy (3)

1. IQ scores are sometimes flawed because they are based on reading skills.
2. IQ formulas for calculating discrepancies are flawed.
3. Discrepancies are useless in earlier grades when students are not expected to have achieved much.

Often called the "wait to fail" model.


Response to Intervention Approach

No universally accepted RTI model exists.

Generally involves 3 tiers of progressively more intensive instruction, with monitoring of progress in each of the tiers.


The 3 Tiers of RTI

1. Instruction in the gen ed classroom.
2. Small-group instruction several times per week.
3. SE referral.


Problems with the RTI Approach (6)

1. Little research evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of RTI in identifying students with LDs, especially large-scale.
2. Most of what we know about RTI is focused on reading.
3. Many gen ed teachers are failing to use evidence-based instruction in Tier 1.
4. Considerable variability occurs in Tier 2 with respect to such things as type of instruction, duration, and who the instructor is.
5. Some students don't experience significant difficulties in reading until the 3rd/4th grade level, when skills required for reading become more complex. Thus, many go undiagnosed for a long time.
6. Some students referred to Tier 2 who do well enough to return to Tier 1 experience reading problems again and go back to Tier 2.


Interindividual Variation

Also known as heterogeneity.

Some will have problems in reading, others in math. Some will have problems with spelling, others will be inattentive.


Intraindividual Variation

Someone who is 2-3 years above grade level in reading might be 2-3 year below grade level in math.



The process of converting print to spoken language.


Phonological Awareness

The understanding that speech consists of small units of sound, such as word, syllables, and phonemes.


Phonemic Awareness

Understanding that words are made up of sounds, or phonemes.


Reading Fluency

The ability to read effortlessly and smoothly.


Reading Comprehension

The ability to gain meaning from what is read.


The 3 Components of Cognitive Training

1. Changing the thought processes.
2. Providing strategies for learning.
3. Teaching self-initiative.


The 4 Strategies of Cognitive Training

1. Self-Instruction
2. Self-Monitoring
3. Scaffolded Instruction
4. Reciprocal Teaching



Making students aware of the various stages of problem-solving tasks while they are performing them and to bring behavior under verbal control.



Keeping track of their own behavior through self-evaluation and self-recording.


Scaffolded Instruction

Teachers provide assistance with students as they complete tasks and then gradually remove their assistance until the student is doing it independently.


Reciprocal Teaching

Similar to scaffolded instruction.

Teacher adopts the expert role with the student as an apprentice. When the teacher backs off, s/he allows students to adopt the co-teacher role.


Socioeconomic/Family Characteristics of People with ID

Most come from single parent families or low income families.


FAS Criteria

1. Maternal drinking during pregnancy
2. Characteristic facial appearance
3. Growth retardation
4. Brain damage


Neglect & Child Abuse Stats for FAS

2-3 times as likely


Crime Stats for FAS

4-10 times as likely to be victims of crimes


Why are People with Disabilities So Vulnerable to Crime? (5)

1. Segregated from others.
2. Praised for their compliance.
3. Impaired judgment.
4. Live in high risk environments.
5. Not educated on safety, appropriate sexuality, or legal rights.


4 Components of Self-Determination in Learning

1. Choice Making
2. Planning
3. Monitoring
4. Evaluation


Components Elements of Self-Determined Behavior

1. Choice-making
2. Decision-making
3. Problem solving
4. Goal setting and attainment
5. Self-advocacy
6. Self-observation, evaluation, and reinforcement
7. Internal locus of control


4 Assessment Domains

1. Instructional Domain--selections/use of materials, clarity of instruction, direct instruction with explanation and cues, sequencing of lessons.
2. Curriculum Domain--long range direction of instruction, instructional philosophy, stated outcomes for course of study, curriculum pace.
3. Environmental Domain--physical arrangement of the classroom, classroom/school rules, peer context, family influence.
4. Learner Domain--individual academic performance data and individual social/behavioral data.


3 Levels of Intervention

1. Universal Intervention--all students, preventive
2. Selected Intervention--at-risk students, rapid response
3. Intensive Intervention--individual students, high intensity


Maze Fluency

A passage where every 7th word is removed and replaced with 3 options.


SETT Framework

Student, Environment, Tasks, Tools


SETT Framework--Student

1. What does the student need to be able to do?
2. What are the student's current abilities?
3. What are the student's limitations?
4. What are the student's special needs?


SETT Framework--Environment

1. What's currently available in the environment?
2. What is the physical arrangement? Concerns?
3. What is the instructional arrangement? Likely changes?
4. What supports are available to the student?
5. What resources are available to the student?


SETT Framework--Tasks

1. What activities take place in the environment?
2. What activities support the student's curriculum?
3. How might these activities be modified to meet the student's needs?
4. How might technology support student's active participation in the activity?


SETT Framework--Tools

1. What tools might be used to invite increased student performance?
2. What tools might be considered when developing a system with special needs to carry out tasks?
3. How might these tools be tried in the customary environment?