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Living Religions of the World > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (122):
1

Apostles

The early followers who were commission to preach the Gospel of Jesus after the resurrection. 12 apostles of Jesus "One sent out" with the message of salvation.

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Baptism

Washing with or in water for forgiveness and a new spiritual holy life

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Covenant

Relationship that God established with his people, also called testament. Christians saw a new "covenant" established in Jesus leading them eventually to call their new scriptures the New Testament.
In judaism, an agreement with God and the people of Israel with obligations and privileges for each party

4

Gospels

"Good news"; At first it was the oral message of good news given about salvation in Jesus, later it was the name of the books that explain the life, death and resurrection of Jesus.

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Advent

The beginning of the Christian liturgical year, a period including the four Sunday's immediately preceding Christmas.

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Atonement

Christ's restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example.

7

Canon

A standard; a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture; the list of acknowledged saints is also a canon.

8

Charismatic

Characterized by spiritual gifts such as glossolalia.

9

Conversion

Spiritual rebirth, as well as divine forgiveness and acceptance

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Nicene Creed

Longer than the Apostles creed, and more explicit. Recited in Catholic Eucharist services. Named for the council of Nicaea. Split the Catholics and Eastern Orthodox

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Ecumenism

The movement for reunion or collaboration between previously separate branches of Christianity

12

Eucharist

Ritual reenactment of Jesus' sacrifice of himself, sharing of bread and wine. Orthodox churches term it in the liturgy, Catholics in mass and Protestants the Lords Supper or Holy Communion

13

Evangelical

In Germany, a name for the Lutheran church. In English, its a conservative Protestant with a confident assurance of divine grace and the obligation to preach it

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Excommunication

Formal expulsion from the Church

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Fundamentalism

A 20th century reaction to modernity. Strict reading and conducting tradition against modernity

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Glossolalia

Divine language known only to God, Speaking in 'tongues'

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Gnosticism

An ancient movement that believed the material world to be evil result of a fall from pure spiritual existence`

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Incarnation

The embodiment of the divine in human form

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Indulgence

A release from time in purgatory

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Lent

Period of 40 days, not counting sundays, leading up to Easter. Serious spiritual reflection

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Mass

Catholic eucharistic ceremony, bread and wine

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Logos

'Word' in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose to carry out God's intention on earth

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Parables

Narrative stories designed to teach a moral lesson

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Pentecost

The 50th day after Easter, when Jesus' followers felt the Holy Spirit and be able to preach and be understood in different languages

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Predestination

The notion based on faith in God as all powerful and all knowing, that God anticipates or controls human action and foreordains every individual to either salvation or damnation

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Purgatory

In Catholic doctrine, the realm in which the deal proceeds after death before entering heaven

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Sacrament

A ritual action seen as signifying divine grace

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Syncretism

The combination of elements from more than one religious tradition

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Transubstantiation

The transformation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ in the Catholic doctrine.

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Trinity

The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit

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Bar Mitzvah

'Son of the commandments'

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Diaspora

'Dispersal', the Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel

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Exile

The deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the Babylonians. Marked the transition from Israelite religion to Judaism

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Exodus

Migration of Hebrew from Egypt by Mose, marked the birth of the Israelite nation

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Haggadah

The liturgy for the ritual Passover supper

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Hasidim

'Pious ones', followers of Baal Shem Tov in Poland and their descendants

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Kabbalah

Medieval Jewish mystical tradition, central text is commentary on Zohar

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Kosher

Food that is ritually acceptable, all animal slaughter has been observed in its preparation

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Masada

Fortress who Jewish defenders are said to have committed suicide than surrender to Rome

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Midrash

Commentary on scripture

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Minyan

Quorum of ten required for a prayer service in the synagogue

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Mishnah

Hebrew summary of the oral law

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Mitzvah

A commandment, there are 613 commandments in the Torah

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Passover

Major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal, associated with the Israelites leaving Egypt under Moses

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Pentateuch

5 books of the Hebrew Bible

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Ashkenazim

Jews of North and Eastern Europe

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Rabbi

A teacher, an expert of the Torah. Scholarly and spiritual teacher of a Jewish congegration

48

Rosh Hashanah

New year festival, in September

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Sabbath

7th day of the week

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Seder

'Order'

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Sephardim

Jews of the premodern Mediterranean and Middle East

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Septuagint

Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures

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Shekhinah

Divine presence, or 'in dwelling', often in visionary terms

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Sukkoth

Festival of the 'tabernacles'

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Tallit

Shawl worn for prayer

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Tanakh

Acronym for the entire Hebrew Bible or Torah

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Nevi’im

Prophets, the 2nd division of the Jewish Bible

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Ketuvim

Sacred writings

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Tannaim

the Rabbinic authorities whose opinions are recorded in the Mishnah

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Tefillin

Small black leather boxes containing words of scripture, tied to the foreheads and forearms

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Torah

The first five books of the Jewish bible. God's 'Teaching' or 'instruction' can be applied to the Law of Mosses or the entire scripture

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Yeshiva

Traditional school for the study of scriptures and Jewish law

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Yiddish

Language spoken by many Eastern and central Jews

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Yom Kippur

Day of atonement, ten days after Rosh Hashanah the day of most solemn hebrew reflection

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Zaddik

Righteous person

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Zion

biblical times.. Hill in Jerusalem where the temple stood as God's dwelling place.
By extension.. the land of the Israelites
Modern times.. goal of Jewish migration and nation state settlement

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Caliph

'One who represents or acts on behalf of another'

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Fatwa

A ruling issued by a traditional religio-legal authority

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Hadith

Body of texts reporting Muhammad's words and example, taken by muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine, can be an individual unit of literature

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Hajj

Annual pilgrimage to Mecca

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Halal

Muslim terms of ritually acceptable, similar to the Jewish term of Kosher

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Hijab

A women's veil or head covering

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Haram

'Forbidden'

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Hijrah

The prophets migration from Mecca to Medina

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‘Id al-Fitr

The holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast

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Mahdi

'rightly guided one'; The Shi'i twelfth Imam. Said to come out to hiding to put righteousness and order to the world

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Jihad

Struggle in defense of faith.. some are military and some are spiritual

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Jinn

Spirits or demons

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Mi’raj

Prophets miraculous journey to heaven

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Mu’adhdhin

Person who calls people to prayer

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Qiblah

The direction of prayer, usually marked on walls in the direction closest to Mecca

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Ramadan

Month in which Muslims fast during daylight hours

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Salat

The prescribed daily prayers said five times a day

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Shahadah

Muslim profession of faith in God as the only god, and in Muhammad as God's prophet

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Shari’ah

Specific regulations of Islamic law

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Sunnis

Muslims who trace successions to the Prophets authority through the caliphate, the larger of the two divisions of Islam, accounts for about 5/6ths of all Muslims today

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Shi’is

Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through imams in the lineage of 'Ali, the smaller of the two divisions of Islam, only accounts for 1/6th of Muslims

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Sunnah

'life example' of Muhammads words and deeds, primary source of guidance for Muslims

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Surah

A chapter of the Qur'an, there are 114 in total, arranged in decreasing order of length except for the first

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Ummah

Muslim community

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Zakat

Prescribed welfare tax, 2.5% of Muslims wealth donated to charity

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Shema

Judaisms' most basic statement of faith, found in Deuteronomy and two shorter passages.

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Sola Gratia

Grace Alone

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Sola Fide

Faith Alone

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Sola Scriptura

Scripture Alone (baptism and eucharist)

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Constantine

313, Granted Christians the liberty to practice their religion

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Xenoglossolalia

Foreign language

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Moses

A leader and lawgiver, lead the people of Israel away from Egypt

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Maccabees

Group of fighters (from 'hammer'), traditionalist Jews, accused the Hellenizers of abandoning themselves to evil ways. They recaptured Jerusalem from the Seleucids and the new temple brought forth Hanukkah.

100

Maimonides

Sometimes called Moses Maimonides. Most famous Jewish philosopher, known as Rambam
Wrote famous jewish law, Mishineh Torah in hebrew, several treatises and responsa. Wrote the Guide of the Perplexed. Resembled Aristotle. Resolved the tension bw knowledge and faith, reason and revelation.

101

Messiah

Anointed one

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Sadducees

One of the first-century sects (hellenization). Represented the aristocracy that embraced Hellenization.Upper class held most of the control, insisted on a narrow literal interpretation of law.

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Pharisees

One of the first-century sects (hellenization). Represented the middle class, were professional scribes serving Sadducees. Interpreted the scripture more broadly than Sadducees

104

Essenes

Authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Group of rigorously observant priests under leadership of the Teacher of Righteousness

105

Zealots

'Fourth Philosphy', Groups that rejected Roman authority, bandits, came to liberate Judea from Roman control

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Zohar

Principle text of kabbalah.

107

Sabbatai Zvi

Adept of Lurianic Kabbalah in Istanbul proclaimed the Jewish messiah. Sephardic rabbi and kabbalist, leader of the Sabbatean Movement

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Zionism

supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state.

109

Filoque

Statement "and from the Son" added to the Nicene creed brought great controversy and split the Roman Catholics and others

110

Augustine

Landmark figure in the evolution of Christianty, son of a devout christian mother and pagan father. Became a priest, prolific theological writer and bishop of Hippo of North America.Wrote about the struggle between good and evil, spirt and matter, the transcendent and the carnal. Wrote "Confessions" and "City of God"

111

Martin Luther

Monk, and theological scholar. Objected to the Church's practice of selling indulgences. Proposed 95 propositions criticizing aspects of the Church. Questioned rituals of confession and penance.

112

Paul

An apostle, but not one of the 12. Questioned Jewish ritual observances. Was a Pharisee. Wrote the Acts of the Apostles. Preached that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and the Jewish Messiah

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John Calvin

Leader of the Calvinism reformation, imposed rigorous norms of doctrine and conduct on the city of Geneva. Wrote 'Institutes of the Christian Religion', human approach to God is both spiritual and intellectual. God is sovereign.

114

Vatican Council II

John XXIII updated the Catholic church with this, dealt with the Humane Vital (ban of birth control); split the traditionalist catholics and reform

115

Abraham

In the Quran, hebrew patriarch, one of the prophets of power (along with Moses), declared that one must worship God directly not through idols.

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Chosen People

Jews via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.

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Abu Bakr

First Khalifa of the Muslims. Muhammad's closest companion and adviser

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Ali

Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. 4th of the rightly guided caliphs, First leader of Shiism.

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Gabriel

Archangel. is one of the seven archangels and is the heavenly messenger who appears in order to communicate God's will and reveal blessed events.

120

Isaac Mayer Wise

American Rabbi of reform congregation. Built a union of congregations, a common prayer book, and a college to educate and train American rabbis.

121

Ka’aba

Most sacred muslim site in the world. "House of God". Muslims are expected to face the kaaba when in prayer, located in mecca.

122

Eid ul Adha

"Festival of the sacrifice" or "Sacrifice Feast", 2nd of two muslim holidays.. honors Abraham's sacrifice of his son to God