Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (122):
The early followers who were commission to preach the Gospel of Jesus after the resurrection. 12 apostles of Jesus "One sent out" with the message of salvation.
Washing with or in water for forgiveness and a new spiritual holy life
Relationship that God established with his people, also called testament. Christians saw a new "covenant" established in Jesus leading them eventually to call their new scriptures the New Testament.
In judaism, an agreement with God and the people of Israel with obligations and privileges for each party
"Good news"; At first it was the oral message of good news given about salvation in Jesus, later it was the name of the books that explain the life, death and resurrection of Jesus.
The beginning of the Christian liturgical year, a period including the four Sunday's immediately preceding Christmas.
Christ's restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example.
A standard; a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged as scripture; the list of acknowledged saints is also a canon.
Characterized by spiritual gifts such as glossolalia.
Spiritual rebirth, as well as divine forgiveness and acceptance
Longer than the Apostles creed, and more explicit. Recited in Catholic Eucharist services. Named for the council of Nicaea. Split the Catholics and Eastern Orthodox
The movement for reunion or collaboration between previously separate branches of Christianity
Ritual reenactment of Jesus' sacrifice of himself, sharing of bread and wine. Orthodox churches term it in the liturgy, Catholics in mass and Protestants the Lords Supper or Holy Communion
In Germany, a name for the Lutheran church. In English, its a conservative Protestant with a confident assurance of divine grace and the obligation to preach it
Formal expulsion from the Church
A 20th century reaction to modernity. Strict reading and conducting tradition against modernity
Divine language known only to God, Speaking in 'tongues'
An ancient movement that believed the material world to be evil result of a fall from pure spiritual existence`
The embodiment of the divine in human form
A release from time in purgatory
Period of 40 days, not counting sundays, leading up to Easter. Serious spiritual reflection
Catholic eucharistic ceremony, bread and wine
'Word' in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose to carry out God's intention on earth
Narrative stories designed to teach a moral lesson
The 50th day after Easter, when Jesus' followers felt the Holy Spirit and be able to preach and be understood in different languages
The notion based on faith in God as all powerful and all knowing, that God anticipates or controls human action and foreordains every individual to either salvation or damnation
In Catholic doctrine, the realm in which the deal proceeds after death before entering heaven
A ritual action seen as signifying divine grace
The combination of elements from more than one religious tradition
The transformation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ in the Catholic doctrine.
The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
'Son of the commandments'
'Dispersal', the Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel
The deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the Babylonians. Marked the transition from Israelite religion to Judaism
Migration of Hebrew from Egypt by Mose, marked the birth of the Israelite nation
The liturgy for the ritual Passover supper
'Pious ones', followers of Baal Shem Tov in Poland and their descendants
Medieval Jewish mystical tradition, central text is commentary on Zohar
Food that is ritually acceptable, all animal slaughter has been observed in its preparation
Fortress who Jewish defenders are said to have committed suicide than surrender to Rome
Commentary on scripture
Quorum of ten required for a prayer service in the synagogue
Hebrew summary of the oral law
A commandment, there are 613 commandments in the Torah
Major spring festival of agricultural rebirth and renewal, associated with the Israelites leaving Egypt under Moses
5 books of the Hebrew Bible
Jews of North and Eastern Europe
A teacher, an expert of the Torah. Scholarly and spiritual teacher of a Jewish congegration
New year festival, in September
7th day of the week
Jews of the premodern Mediterranean and Middle East
Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures
Divine presence, or 'in dwelling', often in visionary terms
Festival of the 'tabernacles'
Shawl worn for prayer
Acronym for the entire Hebrew Bible or Torah
Prophets, the 2nd division of the Jewish Bible
the Rabbinic authorities whose opinions are recorded in the Mishnah
Small black leather boxes containing words of scripture, tied to the foreheads and forearms
The first five books of the Jewish bible. God's 'Teaching' or 'instruction' can be applied to the Law of Mosses or the entire scripture
Traditional school for the study of scriptures and Jewish law
Language spoken by many Eastern and central Jews
Day of atonement, ten days after Rosh Hashanah the day of most solemn hebrew reflection
biblical times.. Hill in Jerusalem where the temple stood as God's dwelling place.
By extension.. the land of the Israelites
Modern times.. goal of Jewish migration and nation state settlement
'One who represents or acts on behalf of another'
A ruling issued by a traditional religio-legal authority
Body of texts reporting Muhammad's words and example, taken by muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine, can be an individual unit of literature
Annual pilgrimage to Mecca
Muslim terms of ritually acceptable, similar to the Jewish term of Kosher
A women's veil or head covering
The prophets migration from Mecca to Medina
The holiday celebrating the end of the Ramadan fast
'rightly guided one'; The Shi'i twelfth Imam. Said to come out to hiding to put righteousness and order to the world
Struggle in defense of faith.. some are military and some are spiritual
Spirits or demons
Prophets miraculous journey to heaven
Person who calls people to prayer
The direction of prayer, usually marked on walls in the direction closest to Mecca
Month in which Muslims fast during daylight hours
The prescribed daily prayers said five times a day
Muslim profession of faith in God as the only god, and in Muhammad as God's prophet
Specific regulations of Islamic law
Muslims who trace successions to the Prophets authority through the caliphate, the larger of the two divisions of Islam, accounts for about 5/6ths of all Muslims today
Muslims who trace succession to the Prophets authority through imams in the lineage of 'Ali, the smaller of the two divisions of Islam, only accounts for 1/6th of Muslims
'life example' of Muhammads words and deeds, primary source of guidance for Muslims
A chapter of the Qur'an, there are 114 in total, arranged in decreasing order of length except for the first
Prescribed welfare tax, 2.5% of Muslims wealth donated to charity
Judaisms' most basic statement of faith, found in Deuteronomy and two shorter passages.
Scripture Alone (baptism and eucharist)
313, Granted Christians the liberty to practice their religion
A leader and lawgiver, lead the people of Israel away from Egypt
Group of fighters (from 'hammer'), traditionalist Jews, accused the Hellenizers of abandoning themselves to evil ways. They recaptured Jerusalem from the Seleucids and the new temple brought forth Hanukkah.
Sometimes called Moses Maimonides. Most famous Jewish philosopher, known as Rambam
Wrote famous jewish law, Mishineh Torah in hebrew, several treatises and responsa. Wrote the Guide of the Perplexed. Resembled Aristotle. Resolved the tension bw knowledge and faith, reason and revelation.
One of the first-century sects (hellenization). Represented the aristocracy that embraced Hellenization.Upper class held most of the control, insisted on a narrow literal interpretation of law.
One of the first-century sects (hellenization). Represented the middle class, were professional scribes serving Sadducees. Interpreted the scripture more broadly than Sadducees
Authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Group of rigorously observant priests under leadership of the Teacher of Righteousness
'Fourth Philosphy', Groups that rejected Roman authority, bandits, came to liberate Judea from Roman control
Principle text of kabbalah.
Adept of Lurianic Kabbalah in Istanbul proclaimed the Jewish messiah. Sephardic rabbi and kabbalist, leader of the Sabbatean Movement
supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state.
Statement "and from the Son" added to the Nicene creed brought great controversy and split the Roman Catholics and others
Landmark figure in the evolution of Christianty, son of a devout christian mother and pagan father. Became a priest, prolific theological writer and bishop of Hippo of North America.Wrote about the struggle between good and evil, spirt and matter, the transcendent and the carnal. Wrote "Confessions" and "City of God"
Monk, and theological scholar. Objected to the Church's practice of selling indulgences. Proposed 95 propositions criticizing aspects of the Church. Questioned rituals of confession and penance.
An apostle, but not one of the 12. Questioned Jewish ritual observances. Was a Pharisee. Wrote the Acts of the Apostles. Preached that Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and the Jewish Messiah
Leader of the Calvinism reformation, imposed rigorous norms of doctrine and conduct on the city of Geneva. Wrote 'Institutes of the Christian Religion', human approach to God is both spiritual and intellectual. God is sovereign.
Vatican Council II
John XXIII updated the Catholic church with this, dealt with the Humane Vital (ban of birth control); split the traditionalist catholics and reform
In the Quran, hebrew patriarch, one of the prophets of power (along with Moses), declared that one must worship God directly not through idols.
Jews via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.
First Khalifa of the Muslims. Muhammad's closest companion and adviser
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. 4th of the rightly guided caliphs, First leader of Shiism.
Archangel. is one of the seven archangels and is the heavenly messenger who appears in order to communicate God's will and reveal blessed events.
Isaac Mayer Wise
American Rabbi of reform congregation. Built a union of congregations, a common prayer book, and a college to educate and train American rabbis.
Most sacred muslim site in the world. "House of God". Muslims are expected to face the kaaba when in prayer, located in mecca.