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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (41)
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1

What does Serum Bilirubin include?

Direct (0.1-0.3 mg/dL)
Indirect (0/2-0/8 mg/dL
Total (0.1-1.0 mg/dL)

2

What is a blood test for Liver Disease?

Serum Bilirubin Test

3

What serum bilirubin causes jaundice?

Total Serum Bilirubin >2.5 mg/dL

4

What are the main Liver Tests?

AST and ALT

5

What is albumin?

The most abundant protein

6

Liver disease impairs what enzyme?

Albumin

7

Low protein levels may cause what in the body?

Edema

8

What is Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GTT)?

A serum blood test for an enzyme that occurs in the liver

9

What is asterixis?

When a patient's wrists and fingers are observed to "flap"

10

What is hepatitis?

An acute or chronic condition of liver inflammation

11

How is hepatitis A spread?

Fecal or oral material. Oral and anal sex as well.

12

How is hepatitis B spread?

Blood

13

How is hepatitis C spread?

Blood to Blood

14

Three ways Hep B is transmitted:

1. Infected blood, blood products, needles
2. Sexual transmission in semen or saliva
3. Infected mothers to child at birth

15

Discuss Hep A treatment:

Self limiting. Clients generally recover in 4-6 weeks acquiring lifelong immunity.

16

Hep B at risk for what?

Risk of liver cancer. Chronic hepatitis.

17

Hep B vaccines?

Is recommended for infants, children, adolescents, and adults.

18

Who has the greatest risk of developing Hep C?

Individuals who are IV drug users

19

Hep C carriers can develop what?

50% develop chronic disease, 20% develop cirrhosis. Increased risk of liver cancer.

20

Incubation period for Hep C?

5 - 12 weeks

21

Incubation period of Hep B?

6 - 24 weeks

22

Hepatitis treatments

- Immunoglobulin
- Peginterferon
- Interferon
- Antivirals

23

Nursing considerations for Hepatitis

Private room, PPI (gown, gloves, goggles), disposable equipment, needless system, hand washing, screen blood donors, stool precautions for A, and test all pregnant women for B. No sharing toothbrushes.

24

Diet for hepatitis

Provide high carbs, high calorie, low to moderate fat, low to moderate protein to promote healing. Small, frequent meals

25

Liver abscess is what?

Caused by the spread of infection from some part of the intestinal tract

26

Liver abscess S/S

chills, intermittent fever, extreme weight loss, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, right sided pain in abdomen and shoulder, jaundice

27

Liver abscess Tx

antibiotics, percutaneous incision and drainage (I&D).

28

Trauma S/S and Tx

orthostatic hypotension, low BP, tachycardia, shock. Surgery to control the bleeding.

29

Trauma nursing considerations

Monitor VS, assess abdomen, treat shock, sterile technique, monitor drainage

30

When is liver transplant necessary?

With life-threatening, end-stage liver diseases. May be total or a piece of the liver