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What did the morris bus study show?

that conductors (who had high physical activity) had lower rates of coronary heart disease VS. the drivers (who had low physical activity)


What did the san francisco long shoreman study show?

the men who conducted strenuous work experienced fewer coronary events than the men who conducted moderate work


What did both morris bus and long shoreman study examine?

occupational physical activity in relation to coronary events


What did the kings county case study show?

that the intensity of the PA didn't matter, PA in general still lead to a 64% reduced cardiac arrest


What did the harvard alumni study show?

it compared current physical activity VS. physical activity when in college, current physical activity offered the most protection against cardiovascular issues


What did the nurses health study show?

The original focus of the study was on contraceptive methods, smoking, cancer, and heart disease, but has expanded over time to include research on many other lifestyle factors, behaviors, personal characteristics, and more than 30 diseases


What did the kings county, harvard alumni, and nurses health study examine?

leisure physical activity


What was the aerobics center longitudinal study? (ACLS)

studied 25,000 males 7080 women on a treadmill test and had an 8 year follow up


what did the ACLS study show?

the relative risk for CVD is 1.7 in the lowest fitness group compared to higher fitness groups


Why is it better to study fitness vs. physical activity? (3 reasons)

it is more prescise
less risk of misclassification
will not miss a true relationship


What is the critical fitness level in men and women?

depends on the age. women 44-48. men 52-56


What levels are there marked increase risk for CHD?

men 8-9METs (28-32). female 6-7 METs (21-25)


What are healthy factors?

diet, exercise, smoking/not smoking, alcohol consumption etc.


What is PVD?

obstruction of blood flow in arteries, most commonly of ankle to racial blood pressure


What did the meta-analysis of PVD study?

increasing walking distance by 50-200%, the more you walk the more you had pain-free walking


What is the most effective dose of exercise for PVD?

30 to 45 minutes of treadmill walking at least 3x a week


Why is cardiac rehab more beneficial than surgery?

less risky, do not need time to heal. helps educate about heart disease, encourages healthy eating, improves psychological well-being, its cheaper and reduces cost of re-hospitalization and repeat surgery


How does PA physiologically reduce risk of PVD?

regular exercise stimulates EPC generation (endothelial progenitor cells)


What are EPC cells?

they are produced in bone marrow and they help grow/repair endothelium


What are short term benefits of PA physiologically?

increases endothelial function, increases glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, increases hemostasis and decreases blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol


What are long-term structural changes to the cardiovascular system with PA?

strengthens heart walls, larger and more elastic arteries --> reduces blood pressure (helps increase cardiac output and deliver oxygen to the body/brain more effectively)


Whats a limitation to calculating BMI?

2 individuals could have the same BMI but have two different types of body fat-- visceral vs. subcutaneous


What is a healthy weight BMI?



What is an overweight BMI?



What is an obese BMI?

30 or higher


What are risks of obesity?

type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high BP, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis, breathing problems, reproductive problems, psychological and social problems


What type of trends are happening with obesity?

they are increasing every year, they are prominent in the south eastern parts of the U.S. (fried /southern food)


What are the two types of fat?

white fat (energy storage) and brown fat (metabolically active fat)


What are 3 locations of fat?

subcutaneous, visceral, and abdominal


What is subcutaneous fat?

fat directly under the skin