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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (22):

What is screening criterion used for in multi-criteria decision analysis?

To filter out unwanted options


Name some facts about structuring a problem "problem definition"!

1. Problem definition should be done before structuring the model
2. is used to identify significant aspects of a problem
3. Allow identifying means-objectives and ends-objectives of a problem


Name a critical mistake in weighting criteria?

weighting criteria based only on the respective notion of importance


what is a constructed descriptor?



what is a direct descriptor?



what is an indirect discriptor?



What properties should a family of criteria possess?
(value tree)

1. Be complete
2. Be non-redundant and concise
3. Be consensual
4. Be decomposable


name some facts about projects' portfolio resource allocation problem!

1. The optimization approach is able to identify optimal portfolios

2. The solution of an optimization problem may not identify ab efficient portfolio


What does the software PROBE inform the decision-maker about in a resource allocation problem about?



how does conditional probability work? how is it calculated?



Describe Huwick's rule!



Describe Savage's rule!



what is stochastic dominance? (of different orders)



Name some facts about the chance node in a decision tree and regarding their branches and how they correspond to a set of results!

1. They have to be mutually exclusive
2. They have to be collectively exhaustive


Name some facts about Monte Carlo Simulation!

1. it is possible to repeat the results obtained in a simulation
2. it is possible to model interdependent relationships between input variables
3. it is NOT necessary to define the distribution of probabilities of the output variable


Name some facts about the strategic focal issue

The importance of the strategic focal issue is associated with the definition of environments and frameworks, creating a platform for discoveries and explorations, which allows anchoring, disciplining and filtering the entire creative process of information gathering and processing. Associated with the focal issue is also the time horizon


What is the key elements for selecting the time horizon in a scenario analysis?

the time horizon should be defined taking into account the sufficient period of time for significant hangesto occur in historical relationships and trends


what is weak signals?

Strategic surprises
--> signs or symptoms of surprises that are still at some distance in time
--> information is initially inexact
--> signals are vague, hazy and difficult to interpret
--> become gradually more individualized making them easier to decipher


In the root causes of diagnostic error the "no default" category may happen why?

because of unusual presentation of a disease


why is it important to use pre-appraised evidence for decision support?

because we only want to include the best evidence available


what is external validity of a clinical trial?

the generalization of the results to other patients


what are the best characteristics of the methodology of the best available information?

1. selects and synthesizes the best available information
2. has a specific methodology
3. its synthesis is used to support clinical decision making
4. gives an overall view of the evidence available
5. needs explicit rules to critical appraisal of the evidence