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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (52):

What is copyright?

Limits the ability of others to copy the expression of an idea you created.


What is trade secrecy?

Limits the ability of others to gain access to an idea (e.g. EULA)


What is an example of trade secrecy?



What is patent protection?

Limits the abilities of others to use an idea. Ways to monetize your efforts.


What is adverse possession law?

Squatter law.


A natural rights theory of property cannot justify ownership of software. Why?

If you take something away from someone - they lose their ownership of it


What is Nozick's view on natural rights?

It’s unusual that ethics drives from the legality. Therefore, the ethics derived from the legality is dependant on the time and place (country) where the copyright violation is happening.


What is Townsend's definition of class?

"my operational definition of class in the electronic
village is that it is a group with common economic and social
interests large enough to exert pressure for social and
economic change"


What is the definition of fungible?

fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable


What is the causality of low income schools and technology?

people need tech literacy for good jobs, low income people don’t have access to to tech - thus don’t have access to good jobs


What is an interesting property of math exams?

They show no gender differences.


What empirical evidence is there of sexism in society or in tech?



What does barbie represent?

Empirical evidence that there is sexism in society or tech.


What evidence is there for unjustness or sexism with respect to CS in the West?



What is stereotype threat?

Is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group.


How do you prevent stereotype threat?

With stereotype lift.


What impact can new technology have on existing social structures?

They become more entrenched because of technology.


What is an example of the impact of new technology have on existing social structures?

Financial market and military structures benefited from technology


What is Johnson's take on socio-technical impacts of the Internet?

Consider broader social values as we determine law and order on the Internet (e.g. how to make it accessible, secure... etc)


What is a pluralist democracy?

A pluralist democracy describes a political system where there is more than one center of power


What is communitarian democracy?

Communitarians criticize the image Rawls presents of humans as atomistic individuals, and stress that individuals who are well-integrated into communities are better able to reason and act in responsible ways than isolated individuals, but add that if social pressure to conform rises to high levels, it will undermine the individual self.


What is a plebiscitary democracy?

Everyone votes


What is network neutrality?

ISPs can’t take bribes to influence network speeds


ISPs can’t take bribes to influence network speeds is an example of what?

network neutrality


What is an example of net neutrality?

We have neutral Internet (net neutrality) to the extent ISP can’t promote some content over other content. E.G. Crave and Netflix


What could cause the loss of the democratization of the Internet?

Loss of net neutrality


What is one way in which the Internet is an anti democratic technology

It makes it much harder for countries to enforce laws with international borders (e.g. copyright laws)


What is the takeaway from John Stuart Mill's classic argument for free speech? In the context of the Internet.

As a forum for the exchange of ideas, the Internet is a place where ideas are vigorously debated, a place of conflict, disagreement, and competition.

It can also be a forum for hate speech, defamation and pornography.


What are anti-trust laws?

Engaging in business practices that make it difficult for competitors to enter the market


What is the fiduciary duty of computing professionals to the consumer?

Fiduciary duty is traditionally considered to comprise two main duties: the duty of care and the duty of loyalty.

The duty of care requires a fiduciary to act in good faith and to use the same degree of care, skill, and diligence that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in similar matters on his or her own behalf. This does not mean every decision made by a fiduciary must be the correct decision, only that the fiduciary must act responsibly in making decisions on the basis of an informed judgment and with the goal of best meeting the beneficiary's objectives. In a volunteer leadership setting, this includes regularly attending board or committee meetings, reading reports or other materials so that decisions are made with a thorough understanding of issues, and keeping accurate records and other documentation.


What would Townsend say about Postman's claim?

Townsend defines class: any group that is large enough to advocate for socia-economic change


What did Postman claim?

In a sense, we are more naive than those of the Middle Ages, and more frightened, for we can need made to believe almost anything.


What would Jessica Brown say about Postman's claim?

Very concerned with access to tech in poor neighbourhoods with regards to tech literacy


What would Johnson say about Postman's claim?

- Postman doesn’t anticipate how large groups of people can work together
- Information tech through crowdsource tech would allow us to benefit


What is Wikipedia's filtering system?

Everyone can post - not everyone can approve or edit.


Give an example that is widely viewed as example of net neutrality? or Describe what most parties would describe as a violation of net neutrality?

Paid prioritization and Netflix

Competition should have fair playing field


What are the four types of responsibility?

- Role
- Causal
- Blameworthiness
- Liability


What is role responsibility?

by virtue of a social role, there are certain things you must do, both ethically and legally.


What is causal responsibility?

one has taken an action that results in some undesirable event.


What is blameworthyness?

doing something unethical


What is liability responsibility?

doing something punishable by law


What is proximal causality?

Who should go to jail if a machine causes harm - who should go to jail

We need to look behind the computer to see if someone is role, liability, or blameworthiness blame


Many hands problem, what is it?

Because many different officials contribute to many ways to software, it is difficult to even in principle to identify who is morally responsible for the software's outcomes


What is a safety critical system?

Is a system where software can kill people. Example: the intravenous system


What did Gotterbarn say about human error?

Human error. Saying someone messed up isn’t a valuable way to analyze a software failure. There is an underlying issue. Design failure for adequate redundancy.

==> Build software considering all ways it could go wrong.


What are the three problems of testing?

- What if desired failure rates make testing impossible?

- Only very simple systems can be exhaustively tested (FALSE)

-Since we can only test a subset of situations, we must choose which tests to administer.


What is therac-25 a clear example of?

Unethically waiting for failure to happen as a means to test.


Is there another approach we can take to software besides testing to make sure that it is correct?

Yes – specification and verification


What is specification and validation?

Write down a formal, or semi-formal description of what it is we want our program to do. This will not, generally, involve things like variables or function names. (this is the algorithm that Barwise describes in his article).

Take our program that we think satisfies the description of the algorithm. Describe the program in a formal language that we can use for constructing mathematical proofs.

Use the formal language to prove that the program described in 2 satisfies the relevant properties of 1.


What is an example of a mismatch between real world environment and the model of user for the therac-25?

Speed of data entry by the user


What does Barwise state?

- Write sudo code
- Make explicit assumptions of how it will be used
- Educate the public


What re some situations in which high cost formal methods are justified?

- cryptographic code
- fly-by-wire aircraft
- software controlled medical equipment