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USU - Psych 3510 - Social Psychology - Sp 2018 > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (86):
1

*What is meant by ability in respect to ELM?

Sometimes it is difficult to pay attention even if we want to. The room is hot, you are thirsty, etc.

2

*Does normative or informational social influence lead to private acceptance?

Informational social influence

3

*When is informational social influence most likely to occur?

When the situation is ambiguous, a crisis, or the person is perceived to be an expert

4

*What is Impact Bias?

The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of one's emotional reactions to future negative events.

5

*What is public compliance?

Conforming to other people's behavior without necessarily believing in what the other people are saying or doing.

6

*What is upward social comparison?

Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability. This can backfire by making us feel inferior.

7

*In respect to social impact theory, what is number?

How many people are in the group?

8

In the Yale Attitude Change Approach, what is meant by source of communication?

Who is trying to do the persuasion? Is he or she respected and considered intelligent?

9

*Describe the perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior.

The ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior. E.g., if people think it's too difficult to perform the behavior, they will not form a strong intention to do so. (Too much trouble to put on a condom before sex.)

10

Describe the Arizona Petrified Forest National Park Study.

Two signs:
One saying many visitors have removed wood with a picture of people taking the wood. (Descriptive norm)

Other saying "Please don't remove petrified wood from the Park" with a circle and bar over the dude stealing the wood. (Injunctive norm)

When the second sign was up, less people stole the wood.

11

*Ted Talk: Dan Gilbert: The Surprising Theory of Happiness

What is the difference between natural and synthetic happiness?

Natural happiness is what we have when we get what we want.

Synthetic happiness is what we have when we don't get what we want.

12

*What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM)?

A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally and peripherally.

13

In the Iron Eyes Cody PSA, what things did they do wrong?

They showed an already littered environment (descriptive norm, so I'm more willing to do it).

14

What are the gender differences in self-handicapping?

Women are critical of those that self-handicap because they put more value on trying hard to achieve something than succeeding in the activity.

15

Article: Growth Motivation as a Moderator of Behavioral Self-Handicapping in Women.

What were the dependent variables?

The type of CD chosen

16

When is the self-perception theory most likely?

When we are not sure how we feel.

17

In the Yale Attitude Change Approach, what is meant by the nature of the communiciation?

Is the message close to something the audience already believes?

18

What is a descriptive norm?

People's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations. (Littering is wrong, but my piece of paper won't matter.)

19

What was the study on the over-justification effect?

4th and 5th graders were given math games, which they found playing that games were intrinsically motivated. Teachers gave rewards for playing with the games which resulted in an increase in game playing (extrinsic motivation). After the rewards system was over, the children were not interested in playing with the games again, despite the fact that they were intrinsically motivated prior to the rewards system.

20

*Describe the attitude component in the theory of planned behavior.

People's attitude toward this behavior, but not their general attitude (football game where people dress alike and yell)

21

What are social norms?

The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members. (On Wednesdays, we wear pink.)

22

*What is social impact theory?

The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's importance, immediacy, and the number of people in the group.

23

What is self-awareness theory?

The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values. (When we are self-aware, we evaluate our current behaviors in terms of our internal morals and values)

24

What is attitude inoculation?

Taking a series of small arguments to solidify their position by forcing them to think about the whys and hows.

25

Does impression management work?

Sort of. It saves face, but hurts us in the end. We also need to monitor and control how we appear to others, but we also want to be straightforward and "authentic."

26

*What is the cognitive component of our social experiences?

Based completely on facts.

27

What is conformity?

A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.

28

*What components are involved in social experiences?

Cognitive Component
Affective Component
Behavioral Component

29

What is extrinsic motivation?

The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting.

30

What is impression management?

Giving ourselves excusing for failing by using either behavioral or reported self-handicapping (or both!).

31

What are three ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?

Changing your behavior.
Justifying behavior by changing on the dissonant cognitions
Justifying behavior by adding new cognitions

32

*What is social comparison theory?

The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people.

33

*Describe the following in terms of cognitive dissonance:

Effort justification

Liking something more after working really hard to obtain it (hazing).

34

What is counter attitudinal advocacy?

Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude (saying becomes believing)

35

*Ted Talk: Dan Gilbert: The Surprising Theory of Happiness

What study was explained?

Photograph class, choose two prints, then choose one to keep. Students who had a chance to change their minds were less happy with their choice. Students who had one choice forever were more happy with their choice.

36

*What is informational social influence?

The need to know what's right. When you conform out of motivation to be accurate such as following cultural rules in another country.

37

How is cognitive dissonance applied to this study?

Nervous laughter
Responsibility on someone else
Belief that the teacher is not really hurting the learner

38

Article: Growth Motivation as a Moderator of Behavioral Self-Handicapping in Women.

What is growth motivation?

An individual difference that represents a desire to pursue growth and challenge instead of simply trying to look or feel good.

39

Article: Growth Motivation as a Moderator of Behavioral Self-Handicapping in Women.

What were the results of this study?

Women were found to behaviorally self-handicap after failure when found to have low growth motivation.

40

What is an injunctive norm?

People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved by others (Littering is wrong)

41

*Describe the following in terms of cognitive dissonance:

Ben Franklin Effect

If you do a favor for someone you don't like, dissonance theory says you will like the person more after you completed the favor.

42

*Ted Talk: Dan Gilbert: The Surprising Theory of Happiness

What is an experience simulator?

Being able to simulate experiences without actually experiencing them. (Ben & Jerry's liver ice cream)

43

In the Yale Attitude Change Approach, what is meant by the nature of the audience?

Target audience.

44

*When is normative social influence most likely?

Strength
Immediacy
High number in the group

(Social impact theory)

45

*What is behavioral self-handicapping?

People act in ways that reduce the likelihood they will succeed on a task. If they fail, there is an excuse already.

46

What is cognitive dissonance?

The discomfort that people feel when two cognitions (beliefs, attitudes) conflict, or when they behave in ways that are inconsistent with their conception of themselves.

47

*Where do our attitudes come from?

Attitudes are evaluations of people, objects, and ideas.

Linked to our social experiences and, in part, to our genes.

48

*In respect to social impact theory, what is immediacy?

How close is the group to you in time and space?

49

Article: Growth Motivation as a Moderator of Behavioral Self-Handicapping in Women.

What were the independent variables?

The feedback given

50

What is intrinsic motivation?

The desire to engage in an activity because we find it interesting or we enjoy it, not because of external rewards or pressures.

51

What is the Looking glass self?

We see ourselves and the social world through the eyes of other people and often adopt those views. (I.e., if a friend thinks a specific television show is the best ever, I will probably like it as well.)

52

What is the *over-justification effect?

The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons.

53

*What is downward social comparison?

Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability.

54

*In respect to social impact theory, what is strength?

How important is the group to you?

55

*How is informational and normative influence seen in the Milgram study?

Informational: adherence to the experiment, researcher is an expert, researcher is insisting to continue, researcher is next to participant

Normative: person wanted the experimenter to like them and not be sad or angry or disappointed.

56

*Ted Talk: Dan Gilbert: The Surprising Theory of Happiness

How is this related to impact bias?

Impact bias is the tendency for the simulator to work badly - to make things seem to be worse or better than they will be.

57

*What is the affective component of our social experiences?

Based on emotions (sometimes based on values, religious beliefs, moral beliefs)

58

*Describe Burger's more recent version of Milgram's study.

Changed psychological distress by stopping the study at 150 volts
Participants were screened for any negative reaction to the experience
Burger explicitly and repeatedly told the participants that they could leave the study at any time, as could the learner.

59

*What is private acceptance?

Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right.

60

*What is normative social influence?

The need to be accepted

61

What is dissonance reduction?

Dissonance reduction will eventually save them from future anguish by seeing to it that they realize how much better off they are without that difficult partner or how lousy that job really was.

62

*Does normative or informational social influence lead to public compliance?

Normative social influence

63

What happened in the aggression version of this study?

Only 2.5% of the participants gave the maximum shock.

64

What is the self-perception theory?

The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs

65

*What is post-decision dissonance and what types of variables lead to post-decision dissonance?

Attractiveness of what you choose will increase or decrease after making a discussion.

Happiness of what you've chosen depends on the permanence of the decision.

66

Article: Growth Motivation as a Moderator of Behavioral Self-Handicapping in Women.

Describe the study.

Participants were put into two groups. First group was told they failed on an evaluation (or test) that they took earlier in the study. Control group was given no feedback. Researcher said that the next part of the study was to take an evaluation with CDs. Told to take a CD that would help their efforts vs. one that would hinder their efforts.
Participants were also evaluated in growth motivation.

67

*What was the outcome of Burger's study?

70% of Burger's participants obeyed and were ready to continue when the learner cried out to be released.

68

What is the Yale Attitude Change Approach?

The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source, the nature of the message, and the nature of the audience.

69

What is fixed mindset?

The idea that we have a set amount of ability that we cannot change.

70

*In respect to ELM, what is a central attitude change?

When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication.

71

In the Iron Eyes Cody PSA, what could they do to improve?

Had a clean environment with one piece of litter (injunctive norm, so I'm less likely to do it).

72

*What is reported self-handicapping?

People devise ready-made excuses in case they fail. (Not feeling well, shy, test anxiety, bad mood, physical symptoms, etc.)

73

*What study is Festinger & Carlsmith's?

Participants were give a very boring task. Asked to tell the next participant that it was an exciting task. Given either $1 or $20 to do that. Those that were given $1 reported liking the task. Those given $20 reported not liking the task (as they all not liked).

74

*Milgram Study.

What did people predict would happen and what actually happened?

Only 1% of participants would go the full way.

62.5% of participants went the full way.

75

*Describe the following in terms of cognitive dissonance:

Blaming or hating our victims

Belittling, dehumanizing someone so you can do bad things without feeling bad.

76

What is growth mindset?

The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow.

77

*In respect to ELM, what is peripheral attitude change?

When people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics. (attractiveness or expertness of the communicator)

78

What is the significance of mirrors in self-awareness theory?

Only great apes and humans are able to detect that the mirror is a reflection of themselves.

When we see our reflection, we are more prone to follow our own values and standards

79

*Describe the subjective norm component in the theory of planned behavior.

People's beliefs about how other people they care about will view the behavior in question (Joe will go to the classical music concert because his girlfriend is playing even though Joe doesn't like classical music.)

80

What comparisons are we most likely to make?

Depends on the situation:
If I want an accurate assessment, I compare myself with people who are similar to me.
If I want to know how far I can go, I compare myself with those higher than me.
If I want to feel better about myself or give myself an ego boost, I compare myself with those lower than me.

81

What is self-concept?

The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes

82

*When do we use a central attitude change in respect to ELM?

When people are truly interested in the topic and thus motivated to pay close attention to the arguments, AND if people have the ability to pay attention.

83

*What is meant by motivation in respect to ELM?

If the topic is personally relevant.

84

*What is the theory of planned behavior?

The idea that people's intentions are the best predictor of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.

85

*What were the follow-up studies done in Milgram's study?

Standard lab version
Office building location
Teacher places learner hand on shock plate
Experimenter located remotely
Two confederate teachers rebel
Teachers choose shock levels

86

*What is the behavioral component of our social experiences?

How do people act toward the attitude object? Self-perception theory. People don't know how they feel until they see how they behave: "I guess I like running because I go running every day."