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USU - Psych 3510 - Social Psychology - Sp 2018 > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (27):
1

The qualities of a group that tie members together and promote liking between members are known as
A. attractants.
B. attachment.
C. group cohesiveness.
D. social norms.

C. group cohesiveness.

2

Deindividuation is a feeling of anonymity that often results in
A. social facilitation.
B. impulsive, deviant acts.
C. prosocial behaviors.
D. psychogenic illness.

B. impulsive, deviant acts.

3

You belong to a study group that your math instructor assigned you to in the beginning of the semester. Your group's task is to solve several problems every week. What type of group, according to your text, would lead to optimal performance?
A. a highly cohesive group
B. a group in which the members strongly dislike one another
C. a group that isn't all that cohesive
D. a mixed-gender group

C. a group that isn't all that cohesive

4

Which of the following statements is true?
A. Deindividuation always results in negative behaviors.
B. increases self-awareness, but greatly reduces a person's feelings of accountability for his or her behavior.
C. results in people feeling that there is little chance that they will be caught behaving badly.
D. can be induced by instructing people to pay attention to the people around them.

C. results in people feeling that there is little chance that they will be caught behaving badly.

5

A high level of group cohesiveness would be LEAST beneficial to which of the following groups?
A. members of a simple living group who have a monthly potluck
B. members of a military unit carrying out a complicated maneuver
C. members of a political campaign team developing a strategy
D. members of a theatre troupe giving nightly performances

C. members of a political campaign team developing a strategy

6

In order to avoid the phenomenon of groupthink, the leader of a group should
A. form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.
B. state his or her opinions forcefully.
C. discourage the input of opinions from those outside the group.
D. encourage the importance of group cohesiveness.

A. form subgroups that discuss the problem separately.

7

When groupthink occurs, there is extreme pressure to conform to the cohesive group; thus, people who may privately hold dissenting views tend to keep quiet, creating the
A. mindguard.
B. illusion of unanimity.
C. illusion of invulnerability.
D. transactive memory.

B. illusion of unanimity.

8

Under what conditions will groups tend to make better decisions than individuals?
A. when the conditions are stressful
B. when cohesiveness is high
C. when they rely on the person with the most expertise
D. when there is a strong directive leader

C. when they rely on the person with the most expertise

9

You are playing a "game" against another person, and you have to choose an option without knowing what your partner will choose. In this instance, you must choose how much money you will choose to contribute to a common pot versus keep in your own account when having X amount in the common pot would bring a benefit to you both. The situation you are in is known as a
A. prisoner's dilemma.
B. commons dilemma.
C. risky shift.
D. mindguard.

B. commons dilemma.

10

According to research, most people will recall a room temperature that is ________ when they are asked to recall being rejected by others. Why is this?
A. higher; Rejection makes people angry.
B. lower; Rejection is chilling.
C. accurate; Rejection is depressing and depression increases accuracy.
D. lower; Fewer people in the room means the room is colder.

B. lower; Rejection is chilling.

11

Both social facilitation and social loafing are examples of the influence that the presence of others has on our behaviors. These phenomena differ, however, in that presence of others ________ in social facilitation situations and ________ in social loafing situations.
A. increases arousal; decreases arousal
B. impairs performance on simple tasks; impairs performance on complex tasks
C. decreases arousal; increases arousal
D. enhances performance on complex tasks; impairs performance on complex tasks

A. increases arousal; decreases arousal

12

Researchers (Karau & Williams, 1993) reviewed more than 150 studies on social loafing, and found that the tendency to loaf is stronger in men than in women. Why is this true, according to work by Eagly (1987) and Wood (1987)?
A. Men typically occupy positions of higher status than do women.
B. Women are higher in relational interdependence than men.
C. Women have less power than men, who induce women to do more work.
D. Women's tasks are typically more complex than the typical male task.

B. Women are higher in relational interdependence than men.

13

A high level of group cohesiveness would be LEAST beneficial to which of the following groups?
A. members of a simple living group who have a monthly potluck
B. members of a military unit carrying out a complicated maneuver
C. members of a political campaign team developing a strategy
D. members of a theatre troupe giving nightly performances

C. members of a political campaign team developing a strategy

14

One reason why people may engage in social loafing in groups is that they feel
A. less noticeable.
B. more emotional.
C. conspicuous.
D. independent.

A. less noticeable.

15

Group discussion often pushes people's initial individual decisions to the extreme, yielding group polarization. According to the persuasive arguments interpretation, this is because
A. others bring up perspectives or issues that the individual hadn't considered.
B. individuals are motivated to be accepted by other members of the group.
C. individuals bolster their initial beliefs when they make their case to others.
D. individuals work to reduce the dissonance aroused when other people disagree with them.

A. others bring up perspectives or issues that the individual hadn't considered.

16

Process loss can best be defined as
A. the poor decisions groups make when they become more concerned with cohesion than their task.
B. the poor performance of group members when they feel anonymous.
C. any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving.
D. an increase of cohesion resulting in a decrease in performance.

C. any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving.

17

President Kennedy's failure at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba is an example of
A. social loafing.
B. deindividuation.
C. groupthink.
D. social dilemmas.

C. groupthink.

18

There are two possible explanations for group polarization-persuasive arguments and social comparison. According to research, which is the most correct?
A. persuasive arguments
B. social comparison
C. Both have research support.
D. Neither have research support.

C. Both have research support.

19

During a psychology experiment, Chad and Wilma are asked to compete in the "prisoner's dilemma" game. As shown below, Wilma goes first, and after four rounds, the results are as follows:
Wilma: cooperate defect defect cooperate
Chad: defect defect cooperate cooperate

As revealed in the pattern of responses above, Wilma is probably using a ________ strategy.
A. tit-for-tat
B. passive response
C. adversarial response
D. random response

A. tit-for-tat

20

Which of the following is NOT a benefit associated with groups, according to the authors of your text?
A. making better decisions when the stakes are high
B. being an important source of information
C. helping us define who we are
D. establishing social norms

A. making better decisions when the stakes are high

21

For Halloween, Jeff wears a sheet and goes to a party as a ghost. How is this costume likely to influence his behavior? He will
A. focus more attention on himself, causing greater self-awareness.
B. feel less like himself, causing him to reaffirm his own moral standards.
C. feel less personally accountable for his behavior.
D. be more likely to monitor his own behavior.

C. feel less personally accountable for his behavior.

22

Researchers (Karau & Williams, 1993) reviewed more than 150 studies on social loafing, and found that the tendency to loaf is stronger in men than in women. Why is this true, according to work by Eagly (1987) and Wood (1987)?
A. Men typically occupy positions of higher status than do women.
B. Women are higher in relational interdependence than men.
C. Women have less power than men, who induce women to do more work.
D. Women's tasks are typically more complex than the typical male task.

B. Women are higher in relational interdependence than men.

23

One explanation for social facilitation focuses on the role of evaluation apprehension-the anxiety associated with being judged by others-in creating a state of arousal in people. What is the weakness of this explanation?
A. Evaluation apprehension is probably not an important issue to cockroaches.
B. People often misattribute the reasons for their arousal.
C. Arousal can lead to the social inhibition effect.
D. Cognitive appraisal processes precede physiological arousal.

A. Evaluation apprehension is probably not an important issue to cockroaches.

24

Benefits to performance due to social facilitation will most likely occur when
A. the task is difficult and involving.
B. the presence of others relaxes you.
C. the task is simple and well-learned.
D. individual efforts cannot be assessed.

C. the task is simple and well-learned.

25

The phenomenon of groupthink is most likely to occur when a group is under stress, highly ________, and when the leader is very ________.
A. cohesive; directive
B. cohesive; diplomatic
C. motivated; feared
D. motivated; relationship-oriented

A. cohesive; directive

26

Compared to individuals deciding alone, members of groups tend to make decisions that are
A. riskier.
B. more conservative.
C. more extreme.
D. less stable.

A. riskier.

27

Why did allowing (and even requiring) participants to communicate when they played the "trucking" game (Deutsch & Krauss, 1962) fail to engender trust and cooperation? Participants
A. were not allowed to bargain or negotiate in their communications.
B. used communication primarily as means of threatening their opponents.
C. became so caught up in the competitive game that they forgot to communicate with their opponents.
D. could never figure out how to use the intercom.

B. used communication primarily as means of threatening their opponents.